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 Course TitleCourse CodeWeekly contact hoursUnits
 Required  Ancillary Courses   
1General Biology IBIO 1113--3
2General Chemistry I CHM 1113--3
3Basic Practical Chemistry I CHM 171-2-1
4Elementary Mathematics IMTH 1112-33
5General Physics IPHY 1113-23
6General Physics Practical IPHY 151-3-1


General Studies

7Communication in English IGST 1112--2
8Nigerians People and CultureGST 1132--2
9Intro to Entrepreneurial Skills IGST 1252--2
10Communication in FrenchGST 1232--2
11Use of Library, Study Skill and Information TechnologyGST 1212--2
 Total   24

Note: L = Lectures; P = Practicals; T = Tutorials


 Course TitleCourse CodeWeekly contact hoursUnits
 Required  Ancillary Courses   
1General Biology II         BIO 1223--3
2General Practical BiologyBIO 132-4-2
3General Chemistry IICHM 1223--3
4Basic Practical Chemistry IICHM 172-2-1
5Introduction to Computer ScienceCSC 12212-2
6Elementary Mathematics IIMTH 124  3--3
7General Physics IIPHY 122 2--2
8Basic Physics Practical IIPHY 152 -2-1


General Studies

9Communication in English IIGST 1222--2
10Logic, Philosophy and Human ExistenceGST 1122--2
11Fundamental PhilosophyGST 1041--1
 Total   22




 Course TitleCourse CodeWeekly contact hoursUnits
 Core Courses   
1General Biochemistry IBCH 2012213


Required  Ancillary Courses

2Introduction to Genetics           BIO   2112-22
3Physical Chemistry IICHM 2132-12
4Organic Chemistry IICHM 2212-12
5Introduction to Computer  ProgrammingCSC   21122-3
6General MicrobiologyMCB 2113--3


General Studies

7Social ScienceGST 2112--2
8Intro to Entrepreneurial Skill IIGST 2152--2
9Fundamental TheologyGST 2111--1
 Total   20


 Course TitleCourse CodeWeekly contact hoursUnits
 Core Courses   
1General Biochemistry  II BCH 2022213
2Functional Biochemistry  BCH 2042-12
3Membrane BiochemistryBCH 2211-11
4Bioenergetics                                                             BCH 2271-11


Required  Ancillary Courses

5Inorganic Chemistry ICHM 2122-22
6General Chemistry PracticalCHM 272-3-2
7Biological TechniquesBIO  27212-2
8Statistics for BiologistsSTA 2223-34


General Studies

9Peace Studies and Conflict ResolutionGST 2222--2
 Total   19




 Course TitleCourse CodeWeekly contact hoursUnits 
 Core Courses    
1Metabolism of Carbohydrate  BCH 3112--2 
2Metabolism of LipidsBCH 3132--2 
3Metabolism of Amino Acid & Proteins BCH 3152--2 
4Methods in BiochemistryBCH 3612--2 
5General Biochemistry laboratory I BCH 363-3-1 
6Introduction to Enzymology BCH 3713-23 


Required  Ancillary Courses

7Organic Chemistry IICHM 3212-12 
8Physical Chemistry IICHM 3312--2 
9Microbial Physiology & MetabolismMCB 3313-13 
10Microbial Genetics/Molecular  BiologyMCB 3113--3 
 Total   22


Course TitleCourse CodeUnits
Core Course
Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES)BCH 38215




 Course TitleCourse Code


contact hours

Credit Units
   LP T 
 Core Courses   
1Biosynthesis of Macromolecules BCH 4112-22
2Metabolism of Nucleic AcidBCH 4132--2
3Metabolic RegulationsBCH 4152--2
4Industrial Biochemistry BCH 4313--3
5Tissue BiochemistryBCH 4412--2
6Plant Biochemistry BCH 4432--2
7Pharmacological BiochemistryBCH 4512--2
8Food and Nutritional BiochemistryBCH 4332--2
9Biochemical Reasoning BCH 4611--1
10Special Topics/Seminar in BiochemistryBCH 481--62
11ImmunochemistryBCH 4533-23
 Total    23


 Course TitleCourse CodeWeekly contact hoursCredit Units
 Core Courses   
1Advanced Enzymology BCH 4722-22
2Advanced Biochemical Methods BCH 46222-2
3Biotechnology & Genetic EngineeringBCH 4743-13
4Intro. to Biochem. Lit. and Phil. of ScienceBCH 4642--2
5Bioinorganic Chemistry BCH 4542-12
6Research ProjectBCH 492-6-6
 Sub-Total    17

Electives (a minimum of 2 credit units can be selected)

7Biochemical ToxicologyBCH 4322--2
8Medicinal ChemistryBCH 4762--2
 Total     19



Stress AreaCode
General / Functional Biochemistry0.     
Metabolism of biomolecules / Regulation of pathways1.      
Membrane Biochemistry / Bioenergetics2.     
Industrial / Food / Nutritional Biochemistry/Toxicology3.     
Plant / Tissue Biochemistry4.     
Pharmacological Biochemistry / Immunochemistry / Inorganic Biochemistry5.     
Biochemical methods / Biochemical reasoning / Biochemical Lit. & Phil of Science6.     
Enzymology / Genetic Engineering/Medicinal Chemistry7.     
Seminar / Industrial Training8.     
Research Project9.     






GST 125: INTRODUCTION TO ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS I                                                      (2 Credits)

Introduction to entrepreneurship and new venture creation; entrepreneurship in theory and practice, The opportunity, forms of business, staffing, marketing and the new venture; Determining capital requirements, Raising capitals, financial planning and management;  starting a new business feasibility studies, innovation;  legal issues; insurance and environmental considerations.

GST 111:  COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH I                                                                                          (2 Credits)

Effective communication and writing in English language skills. Writing of essay, letters, speeches, public announcements, minutes of meetings and term papers. Reading and listening comprehension. Construction of Sentences, outlines and paragraphs. Collection and organization of materials and logical presentation/punctuation.

GST 113:  NIGERIA PEOPLE AND CULTURE                                                                                         (2 Credits)

Study of Nigeria history, culture and arts in pre-colonial times. Nigerian's perception of his world. Nigerian cultures and their characteristics. Evolution of Nigeria and their characteristics. Evolution of Nigeria political system, Indigene/ settler phenomenon. Concepts of trade, Economic self-reliance, Social justice, Individual and national Development, Norms and values, Negative attitudes and conducts (cultism and related vices), Re-orientation of moral and national values, Moral obligations of citizens and Environmental problems.


Brief history of libraries, library and education, university libraries and other types of libraries, study skills (reference services). Types of library materials, using library resources including e­-learning, e-materials etc. understanding library catalogues(CARD OPAC etc) and classification, copyright and its implications, Database resources, Bibliographic citations and referencing. Development of modern ICT, hardware technology, software technology, input devices, storage devices, output devices, word processing skills (typing, etc).

GST 123: COMMUNICATION IN FRENCH                                                                                              (2 Credits)

Introduction to French, alphabets and numeracy for effective communication (written and oral) conjugation and simple sentence construction based on communication approach, sentence construction, comprehension and reading of simple text.

GST 112: LOGIC, PHILOSOPHY AND HUMAN EXISTENCE                                                            (2 Credits)

A brief survey of the main branches of philosophy, logic special symbols in symbolic logic conjunctions, negation, affirmation, disjunction, equivalent and conditional statement laws  of torts. The method of deduction using rules of inference and bi-conditionals qualification theory.   Types of discourse, Nature   of arguments, validity and soundness, Distinction between   deductive and inductive inferences.  Etc. illustration will be taken from familiar texts including literature materials, Novels, law reports and news paper publications.

GST 122: COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH 11                                                                                        (2 Credits)

Logical presentation of papers, phonetics, instruction of lexis, Arts of public speaking and oral communication, figures of speech, précise report writing.                                                    


BIO 111:  GENERAL BIOLOGY I                                                                                                                   (3 Credits)

Cell structures and organization; Plant and animal cells, Function of cellular organelles; diversity and characteristics of living things. General reproduction; mitosis, meiosis, abnormalities associated with gene crossing, heredity and evolution. Concept of ecology and types of habitats diversity of plants and animals. Food chains and food webs; interrelationship of organisms. Types of population dynamics, static, climax communities, types and factors affecting them. *Edaphic factors, rainfall, wind, relative humidity, light intensity etc. *Modification of the natural ecosystem.Elementary biochemistry of carbohydrates, protein, lipid and nucleic acids.                                    

CHM 111: GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1                                                                                                           (2 Credits)

Atomic Structure and periodic table. Development of Configuration of Elements. Stoichiometry and mole concept. Electronic theory of atoms and valency. Chemical bonding. Formular and IUPAC basic nomenclature of compounds, Properties of gases; Equilibria and Thermodynamics; Chemical Kinetics; Electrochemistry. Radioactivity and its application. Phase equilibrium, study of one and two components systems.

CHM 122:  GENERAL CHEMISTRY II                                                                                                       (2 Credits)

Historical survey of the development and importance of Organic Chemistry; Nomenclature and classes of organic compounds; Homologous series; Functional groups; Isolation and Purification of organic compounds; Qualitative and quantitative organic chemistry; Stereochemistry; Determination of structure of organic compounds; Electronic theory in organic chemistry; Saturated hydrocarbons; Unsaturated hydrocarbons. Periodic table and Periodic Properties; Valence Forces; Structure of solids. The Chemistry of selected metals and non-metals. Qualitative analysis. Structure of solids. Kinetic theory of gases and gas laws. Colligative properties of dilute solutions. Raoult's law, Henry's law and molecular weight determination. Thermochemistry and Hess's law. Chemical equilibrium. Law of mass action, reaction rate and chemical energetics. Electrochemistry, Ionic equilibria. Theory of acids, bases and indicators.

CHM 171: BASIC CHEMISTRY PRACTICALS I                                                                                      (1 Credit)

The theory and practice of simple volumetric and qualitative analysis. Simple organic preparations, reaction of functional groups and physical determinations.

PHY 111: GENERAL PHYSICS I                                                                                                                   (2 Credits)

(Mechanics, Thermal Physics and Waves) Space and Time, Units and dimension, Kinematics; Fundamental Laws of Mechanics, statics and dynamics; work and energy; Conservation laws. Elasticity; Hooke's law, Young's shear and bulk moduli, Hydrostatics; Pressure; bouyance, Archimedes' Principles., Surface tension; adhesion, cohesion, capilarity, drops and bubbles. Temperature; heat; gas laws; laws of thermodynamics; kinetic theory of gases. Sound, Applications.Measurements, Units and Dimensions. Linear motion. Relevance of linear kinematics to science and physiological affects of accelerations. Motion in a circle and simple harmonic motion. Gravitation, statics and hydrostatics, elasticity, friction, viscosity and surface tension. Heat, temperature, thermometers. Expansion of solids, liquids and gases. Gas exchanges in terrestrial organism. Heat transfer, change of state. Heat regulation in animals, low temperature in biology and in medicine. Waves and resonance ultra sound and its application. Practicals: General measurements and error analysis, simple experiments in mechanics and properties of matter. Heat and thermodynamics. Kinetic model of gas, A model for solid. Properties of metals

PHY 151: GENERAL PHYSICS PRACTICAL                                                                                            (1 Credit)

This laboratory bases course emphasize quantitative measurement, the treatment of measurement and graphical analysis. A variety of experimental techniques will be employed. The experiments include studies of maters, the oscilloscope, mechanical systems, electrical and mechanical resonant systems, light, heat, viscosity, etc. covered in PHY 111

MTH 111: ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS I                                                                                           (3 Credits)

(Algebra And Trigonometry) Real number system: simple definitions of integrals, rational and irrational numbers. The principle of mathematical induction. Real sequences and series: elementary notion of convergence of geometry, arithmetic and other simple series. Theory of quadratic equations. Simple inequalities: absolutes values and the triangle inequality. Identities, partial fraction. Sets and subsets: union, intersection, compliments. Properties of some binary operations of sets: distributive, closure, associative, commutative laws with examples. Relations in a set: equivalence relation. Properties of set functions and inverse set functions. Permutations and combinations. Binomial theorems of any index. Circular measures, trigonometric function of angles of any magnitudes. Addition and factor formulae. Complex numbers: algebra of complex numbers, the Argand diagram, De Moivre's theorem, n-th root of unity.

CSC 122: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE                                                                        (2 Credits)

History of Computer Science and their generations; Computer Hardware; functional components Modern I/0 unitsThe meaning of a computer origin, classification: Analog, Digital and Hybrid. Types of Digital computers: mainframe, mini and microcomputer models of digital computers, modes of computer operations.  The generation of computer types, the meaning of a programme and a "job".  The two levels of computer software:  The high-level and low-level.  The computer and the language levels. Examples of systems software, Interpreters, compilers, and translators. The function of system software; the functional units of a digital computer; Examples of application software packages. Data processing and data processing centers. Criteria for using a computer. Type of computer users' interface. The types of printers. Introduction of the internet.

BIO 122: GENERAL BIOLOGY II                                                                                                                 (3 Credits)

Levels of organization. Origin and History of classification. Principles of Binomial nomenclature. Hierarchical classification. Molecular classification of bacteria. structure, morphological features and chemical nature of viruses. Kingdom monera; Habitat, structure and morphological characteristics and life cycle of; Cyanobacteria, Archaebacteria, Eubacteria. Kingdom Protista;- Habitat, structure and morphological characteristics and life cycle of protozoans, algae and slime moulds. Kingdom Mycota;- Habitat, structure and morphological characteristics and life cycle of; ascomyctes, deuteromyctes, zygomycytes and oomycytes. Kingdom Plantae- Habitat, structure and morphological characteristics of bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnospermae and angiospermae. Kingdom animalia;- Invertebrate and origin of animal diversity. Symmetry, cephalisation and gastrulation. Habitat, structure and morphological characteristics and life cycle of porifera, cnideria, platyhelminthes, nermetines, rotifers, nematode, acanthocephalia, annelid, mollusca, Echinodermata, and chordate.     

BIO 132: GENERAL PRACTICAL BIOLOGY                                                                                            (2 Credits)

Testing for the presence of food substances, Diffusion and osmosis experiments. Observation of cells and tissues of selected plants and animal species. Investigations on physiological processes affecting photosynthesis. Observation of mitosis in onion bulb. Observation of cyst and ova of parasitic worms. Observation of fungi hyphae, and spores, bacteria cells, protozoan specimens and algae. Observation of Plant specimens. Observation of invertebrate animal specimens. Preparation of microscopic slides. Basics of photometry, colorimetry, chromatography, electrophoresis.           

CHM 172: BASIC CHEMISTRY PRACTICALS II                                                                                    (1 Credit)

More on theory and practice of simple volumetric and qualitative analysis. Simple organic preparations, reaction of functional groups and physical determinations.

MTH 124: ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS II                                                                                        (3 Credits)

(Vectors, geometry and dynamics) Types of vectors: points line and relative vectors. Geometrical representation of vectors in 1-3 dimensions. Addition of vectors and multiplication by a scalar. Components of vectors in 1-3 dimensions: direction cosines. Linear independence of vectors. Point of division of a line. Scalar and vector product of two vectors. Simple application. 2-dimensional coordinate geometry: straight lines. Angle between two lines. Distance between points. Equations of circle. Tangent and normal to a circle; Properties of parabola, ellipses, hyperbola, straight lines and planes in spaces; direction cosines; angle between lines; and between lines and planes; distance of a point from a plane; distance between two skew lines.

PHY 122: GENERAL PHYSICS II                                                                                                                 (3 Credits)

(Electricity, Magnetism and Modern Physics) Electrostatics; conductors and currents; dielectrics; magnetic fields and induction; Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic oscillations and waves; Applications. Propagation of light at plane and curved surfaces. The human eye photosensitive pigments in the eye, colour vision and the insect eye. Optical instruments: Ophthalmoscope and compound microscope. Radioactivity and useful effects of radiation. Current and static electricity, introductory magnetism and alternating currents. Introductory atomic physics and electronics. Practicals: Vibrations, Wave and Optics Magnetism



GST 222: PEACE STUDIES AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION                                                             (2 Credits)

Basic studies in peace studies and conflict resolution, peace as vehicle of unity and development, conflict issues, types of conflicts, e.g. ethnic/ religious/political/economic conflicts, root causes of conflicts and violence in Africa, indigene/settler phenomenon, peace   building, management of conflict    and security, elements of peace studies and conflicts resolution, developing a culture of peace, peace mediation and peace keeping, alternative dispute resolution (ADR)  Dialogue/Arbitration in conflict resolution, role of international organization    in conflict resolution e.g. ECOWAS , African union, united Nations etc.

GST 215: INTRODUCTION TO ENTREPRENURIAL SKILLS                                                           (2 CREDITS)

Possible business  opportunities in Nigeria. Some of the ventures to be focused upon include the following;  1. Soap/detergent, tooth brushes and tooth paste making 2. Photography, 3.Brick, nails, screws making 4.Dyeing /Textile blocks paste making 5.Rope making 6.Plumbing 7.Vulcanising 8.Brewing 9.Glassware production 10.Paper production 11.water treatment/conditioning/packaging 12.Food processing/ packaging/ preservation  13.Metal working/fabrication-steel and aluminum doors and windows 14.Training industry 15. Vegetable oil/salt extractions 16. Fisheries/Aquaculture 17.Refrigeration / Air conditioning 18.Plastic making 19. farming(crop) 20.Domestic  electrical wiring 21.Radio/TV repairs 22. Carving 23.Weaving  24.Brick laying/Making 25.Bakery 26. Tailoring  27. Iron welding 28. Building drawing   29. Carpentry 30. Leather training 31. Interior decoration  32.Printing 33, Animal husbandry (poultry, piggery, goat etc). 34.Medial craft, blacksmith, tinsmith etc. 35. Sanitary wares 36.vehicle maintenance  37. Bookkeeping.


BCH 201: GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY I                                                                                                  (3 Credits)

Historical perspectives of biochemistry. The living cell; organization and molecular architecture, types of cells and their characteristics. The structure, size and functions of organelles. Biomolecules and the origin of life. The structural units of macromolecules- structures and functions of amino acids, monosaccharides, glycerol, fatty acids and nitrogenous bases. Inorganic synthesis of building units. Chemistry of amino acids, proteins and their derivatives. Measuring techniques in biochemistry-cell fractionation, chromatography (paper, thin layer, column, HPLC etc) calorimetry, spectrophotometry etc. Classification and hierarchical organization of proteins- primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins (with examples); determination and biochemical applications of the structures. The physical and chemical properties of water; acidity and alkalinity, pH, pOH, pKa, pKb values and their effect on cellular activities; buffer solutions- preparations of buffer solutions. The nature, classification and function of enzymes; introduction to enzyme kinetics.

Pre- requisite: BIO 111, BIO 122, CHM 111, CHM 112, CHM 113, CHM 122, CHM 123

Recommended Texts: 1. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, 6th Edition (Worth Publishers)

                                                2. Outlines of Biochemistry by Conn & Stump 4th Ed. (Wiley

BCH 202: GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY II                                                                                                (3 Credits)

Structure and Organization of Biological Membranes. Mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Photosynthesis: Photoreceptor pigments, light and dark reactions of photosynthesis to include photosystems I and II, cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation and a simple treatment of CO2 fixation. Metabolism of Lipids: Digestion and absorption of lipids. Role of lipoproteins in lipid transport. Metabolism of lipoproteins in health and disease. Storage and mobilization of energy stores in adipocytes. Fatty acid formation; Introductory bioenergetics. Energy rich compounds. The role of ATP in energy exchange reactions. Oxidation-reduction. Simple calculations based on these concepts. Carbohydrate Metabolism: Digestion and absorption, in G.I.T. Glycolysis, citric acid, pentose phosphate and glyoxylate cycles. Gluconeogenesis and a brief outline of glycogenolysis and glycogenesis. Metabolism of amino acids and proteins: Digestion and absorption of protein in the G.I.T. The concept of nitrogen balance and essential amino acids. Amino acid catabolism to include the cellular strategies for deamination and the fate of the C-skeletons; Significance of glutamine and alanine cycles. Urea synthesis. A brief outline of biotransformation processes and detoxification strategies in the metabolism of xenobiotics.

(Pre-requisite BCH 201)

Recommended Texts: 1. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, 6th Edition (Worth Publishers)

                                               2. Voet and Voet (2012): Biochemistry 4th Edition, (Wiley)

BCH 204: FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                             (2 Credits)

An introduction to biochemical information flow: Strategies of signaling (physical and chemical) presented in a hierarchical fashion.  Biochemistry of the Visual process: Vertebrate photoreceptors, rhodopsin and visual excitation. Lens cataract and night blindness. Composition of muscle and biochemistry of muscle contraction. The central dogma of molecular biology. Evidence for DNA as the carrier of genetic information and a outline of replication, transcription and translation. Hormones and neurotransmitters as chemical mediators of signals in plant and animals. An outline of the physiological actions of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, insulin, PTH, estrogens and testosterones. Ligand-gated and voltage-gated ion channels in the transmission of nerve impulse (action potential, acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters e.g. GABA, serotonin, norepinephrine). Signal transduction cascades to highlight the roles of cAMP, IP3, diacylglycerol and Ca2+ ions in sensing and processing stimuli.

(Pre-requisite BCH 201)

Recommended Texts: 1. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, 6th Edition (Worth Publishers)

                                               2. Voet and Voet (2012): Biochemistry 4th Edition, (Wiley)

BCH 221: MEMBRANE BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                (1 Credits)

Structure, composition and functions of biological membranes- lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Biogenesis- isolation, characterization and classification of membranes; chemistry and biosynthesis of membranes; molecular organization of  membrane components; membrane dynamics- phase transition, motion of membrane components, heterokaryon membrane fusion- exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis; Transport across membrane- simple and facilitated diffusion, exchange diffusion, symport, uniport, passive transport, active transport- free energy of transport, primary and secondary active transport systems. Classification of ATPases, ion gradient for transport, ion- selective channels, acetylcholine receptor, porins etc; defective ion channel; signal transduction; features- gated ion channels (electrical signaling); ligand- gated ion channel; nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; voltage- gated ion channel; neuronal  action potential; receptor- enzymes signal transduction- tyrosine specific protein kinases, insulin- receptor protein kinase, guanyl cyclase; G- protein coupled receptors: beta- adrenergic receptor- epinephrine. cAMP signaling, diacylglycerol and IP3 signaling; calcium signaling. Sensory transduction in vision, olfaction and gestation. Transport of sugar and amino acids. Ionophores.

(Pre-requisite BCH 201)

Recommended Texts: 1. Biology of cell membrane by Chairbone and Weissman.

                                               2.. Membrane molecular biology by Fox, C.F. & Keith, A.       

                                               3. Foundation of membrane Biochemistry Etim et al., (2011)1st Edition, (First Born Investment)

 BCH 227: BIOENERGETICS (Pre-requisite BCH 201)                                                                             (1 Credit)

First and second laws of thermodynamics.  Concept of Gibbs free energy and the basic principles of biological energetics. Entropy, high- energy compounds, Standard free energy change and its relationship to the equilibrium constant. Hydrolysis of ATP, thioesters and high energy compounds. Oxidation- reduction reaction; reduction potential, standard reduction potential and its measurement, electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation, Mitchell chemiosmotic theory, regulation of ATP production. The energetics of coupled reactions, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial photosynthesis electron transport, oxidative/photosynthetic phosphorylation.  

(Pre-requisite BCH 201)

Recommended Texts: 1. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, 6th Edition (Worth Publishers)

                                               2. Thermodynamics of Biochemical Reactions by Robert A. Alberty  (John Wiley and Sons Publication)


MCB 211: GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY                                                                                                     (3 Credits)

Basic principles and methods of sterilization; control of microorganisms by physical methods: heat, filtration and radiation; chemical methods: phenolics, alcohols, halogens, heavy metals, quartenary ammonium compounds, aldehydes and sterilizing gases; evaluation of antimicrobial agent effectiveness. Principle and functioning of LAF. General principles in: preparation of culture media; types of culture media: simple media, complex media, synthetic media, enriched media, selective media, indicator media, differential media, anaerobic media; Pure culture techniques: streak plate, pour plate and spread plate method; maintenance of pure culture; methods of preservation of various microbes. Principles of Microscopy: Staining techniques: Simple, Gram, Capsule, Flagella, Endospore, Nuclear, Acid fast. Specimen preparation and basic principles for the examination of microbes by light, phase contrast, dark field, confocal, fluorescent and electron (transmission and scanning) microscopy; Micrometry and microdensitometry. Basic principles of Colorimetry and Spectrophotometry; Fluorimetry, Flame photometry and atomic absorption Spectrophotometry; Chromatography (paper, thin layer, column, partition, gel filtration, ion-exchange and affinity chromatography); GLC and HPLC.

BIO 211: INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS                                                                                               (2 Credits)

History of genetics. Pattern, particle and principles of heredity (monohybrid and dihybrid inheritance). Complete,  incomplete dominance and co dominance. Mendels inheritance in human: Multifactorial inheritance. Sex determination, Sex linkages, Eukaryotic chromosome and theory of inheritance. Detail structure of DNA, mechanism of DNA replication. Basic and normal control of cell division (meisosis and mitosis). Replication of DNA, Genes expression (mutation, transformation and protein synthesis). Genetic recombination. Gene linkages and Gene mapping. Locating of Genes along a chromosome. Direct detection of genotypes. Genetic analysis if populations and how they evolve (Heritable and non heritable characteristics, quantitative inheritance). Structure and organization of Drosophilia genome, sex determination in Drosophilia. Diseases at the level of the gene (genic mutations), Recessive Disorders (homozygote recessive aa),  blood clotting problems. Diseases due to recessive allele - sex-linked; Sickle-cell anemia.  Phenylketonuria ; Galactosemia . Syndromes and Chromosomal disorders. Chromosomal rearrangements and Genetic Disease.  Methods of Detection-Pedigree analysis. Origin of life on earth. Concept and theory of evolution.    

CHM 221: ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I                                                                                                          (2 Credits)

Factors affecting structure and physical properties of organic compounds; Factors availability of electrons; Stereochemistry. Methane, energy of activation and free radical substitution reactions in alkanes. Functional group chemistry. Electrophilic and Nucleophilic substitution reaction. Aromacity. Various organic reactions, e.g. addition free radical, elimination reactions, etc. Amines and Derivatives; Chemistry of the Carbonyl group; Chemistry of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives;  Sulfuric Acids; Some Important types of Natural Products Lipids, Carbohydrates, Chemistry of Amino Acids and Proteins.

BIO 272: BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES                                                                                                      (2 Credits)

Preparation of microscope slides, biological drawings, microtomy, colorimetry, photometry, cytological techniques, chromatography, collection and preservation of biological specimens. Herbarium Techniques, experimental design.

STA 222: STATISTICS FOR BIOLOGISTS                                                                                                (2 Credits)

Principles of measurements. Sampling techniques. Presentation of data in descriptive statistics. Frequency distribution. Measures of central tendency: mean, median and mode. Measures of dispersion: Mean deviation and standard deviation. Correlation and regression: Scatter Diagram, Coefficient of Correlation, Rank correlation. Lines of Regression. Probability: Basic concepts related to probability theory, classical probability.  Probability Distributions: Introduction and simple properties of Binomial, Poisson and Normal Distributions and their applications in biology. Testing of hypotheses: Some basic concepts, Errors in hypothesis testing; critical region, Students t-test for the significance of population mean and the difference between two population means; Paired t-test; Chi square test for population variance, goodness of fit and for the independence of two attributes in a contingency table; F-test for the equality of two population variance; Analysis of variance- One-way and two-way analysis of variance.

CHM 212: INORGANIC CHEMISTRY                                                                                                        (2 Credits)

Chemistry of First row transition metals. Introduction to co- ordination chemistry including elementary treatment of crystal field theory. Comparative Chemistry of the following elements: (a) Ga, In, TI, (b) Ge, Sn, Pb, (c) As, Sb, Bi (d) Se, Te, Po. Elementary introduction to Organometalic Chemistry. Role of metals in biochemical Systems.

CHM 231: PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I                                                                                                         (2 Credits)

Kinetic theory of gases; Behaviour of real gases; The law of thermodyamics; Entropy and free energy; Reactions and Phase equilibria; Reaction rates; Rate laws; mechanism and theories of elementary processes; photochemical reactions; Basic electrochemistry.

CHM 272:  General Practical Chemistry  II                                                                                             (3 units)

Preparation of organic compounds such as bromonitro benzene, dinitrotoluene etc and other related compounds including their purification, separation of coloured compounds using chromatographic techniques eg. Paper and thin-layer chromatography; practice of solvent extraction technique for liquids etc, preparation of double salts e.g Ahem's, experiment drawn from foods, oil water and oil analysis.

Pre-requisite:  CHM 122 and CHM 212



BCH 371: INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMOLOGY                                                                                     (3 Credits)

Definition of the Enzyme Concept: Introduction to enzymes science, a brief history. Characteristics of enzymes, comparison between enzyme and chemical catalyzed reactions. Enzyme types of specificity, the active site. Lock and key, induced fit, and transition state stabilization hypothesis. Effect of Substrate concentration, temperature, pH, ions and inhibitors on enzyme catalyzed reactions etc. Coenzymes: Structures and functions and roles and relationship to the vitamins. Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes/Isolation and purification of enzymes from animal/plant tissues and microorganisms, etc.  Kinetics of Enzyme Catalyzed  Reactions: Catalysis and activation energy- transition state of reactions, Arhenius equation, calculation of activation energy and energy of denaturation; Michaelis-Menten equation Lineweaver-Burk plot and other transformations; Enzyme Inhibition; protein- ligand interaction, cooperativity, allosteric/regulatory enzymes, estimation of kinetic parameters-enzyme activities, Km, Vmax, Ki etc; zymogens  activation, digestive enzymes etc.. Quantitative estimation of enzyme activity, purification tables and units of enzyme activity, isozymes. Recent Advances in Enzymology: Application of Enzymology in Medicine and Industry.

(Pre-requisite: BCH 201 & 202) 

Recommended Texts: 1. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, 6th Edition (Worth Publishers)

                                               2. Understanding enzyme Palmer 3rd edition

                                               3. Biochemistry. The Chemical Reactions of Living Cells. Metzler,4 D. E. 3rd Ed.

BCH 311: METABOLISM OF CARBOHYDRATE    (Pre-requisite BCH 201 & 202)                           (2 Credits)

A review of the structural inter-relationship of sugars mentioning the biochemically important aldo- and keto-pentoses and hexoses. Stereochemistry of sugars.  Degradation and digestion of carbohydrates- sugars, storage polysaccharide and cell walls. Reactions of sugars; catabolism of glucose, galactose and fructose, etc. Glycolysis – regulation of glycolysis, Pasteur Effect, anaerobic fermentation. The tricarboxylic acid cycle; the pentose phosphate (phosphogluconate) pathway; the glyoxylate cycle, the Cori cycle (regulation).  Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation; mechanism of ATP synthesis; effect of ionophore, uncoupler and energy transfer inhibitors. Gluconeogenesis- from lactate, amino acids and glycerol; glycogenesis and glycogenolysis, regulation and synthesis of starch, sucrose and others. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Photosynthesis: concepts, including a detailed treatment of the light and dark reactions with emphasis on the reactions of photosystems I & II and the mechanism of photophosphorylation. Comparison of C3 and C4 photosynthesis. Synthesis of structural and reserve polysaccharide (glycogen, starch cellulose etc).

(Pre-requisite: BCH 201 & 202) 

Recommended Texts: 1. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, 6th Edition (Worth Publishers)

BCH 313: METABOLISM OF LIPID                                                                                                            (2 Credits)

Review of definition and classification of lipids: fatty acids, triacylglycerol, glycosylglycerols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, waxes, prostaglandins; lipid micelles, monolayers and bilayers. Lipid metabolism: Digestion, absorption and storage of fats; obesity genetic abnormalities in carnithine or carnithine acyl transferase. Refsum's disease, atherosclerosis, myocardiac infarction, lipidoses e.g. Gaucher's Disease. Fatty acid oxidation and synthesis, formation and degradation of ketone bodies. Synthesis of triacylglycerol, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol and steroid hormones. Integration of lipid metabolism; acetic acid as central precursor for lipid biosynthesis.

(Pre-requisite: BCH 201 & 202) 

Recommended Texts: 1. Voet and Voet (2012): Biochemistry 4th Edition, (Wiley)

                                               2. Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipopotein. and Membranes (4th) Vance and Vance (Eds 2002.)

BCH 315: METABOLISM OF AMINO ACID AND PROTEINS    (Pre-requisite BCH 201)              (2 Credits)

Amino acids as building blocks of proteins; covalent backbone of proteins; amino acid sequence of proteins; isolation, fractionation, purification and characterization of proteins. Biological functions of proteins; protein degradation, deamination and transamination reactions; urea cycle; nitrogen metabolism; nitrogen fixation, glutamine synthetase in nitrogen metabolism. Amino acid biosynthesis and its regulation; defects in amino acid metabolism, synthesis of molecules derived from amino acids- porphyrin, creatine, glutathione, other amino acids; nitrogenous excretory  products- amino acid oxidation, production of urea; amino acid pool; nitrogen balance.

(Pre-requisite: BCH 201 & 202) 

Recommended Texts: 1. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, 6th Edition (Worth Publishers)

                                               2. Introduction to Protein Science by Lukong et al., (2007) Kriscona Press

BCH 361: METHODS IN BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                              (2 Credit)

Principles of Instrumentation: principles, methodologies and applications: Electrophoresis- cellulose acetate, agarose gel, starch gel, SDS- polyacrylamide gel; isoelectric focusing, detection, estimation of molecular weight of protein; Western, Northern and Southern blotting.  Chromatography: types: paper, thin layer, adsorption, molecular exclusion, partition, affinity, ion exchange, gas- liquid, high performance, low pressure. Detection, quantification and analysis of biomolecules by chromatography.  Spectroscopy: spectrophotometry, turbidimetry, nephelometry, atomic absorption, atomic emission, spectrofluorimeter. Centrifugation: differential, density, gradient, ultracentrifugation; analysis of sub cellular fractions.  Radio-isotopy techniques:  Nature of radioactivity and data analysis; ELISA; application in immunology and bioassays. Microscopy- light and electron microscopy, ion-probe analysis and video microscopy. pH measurement- Calomel and glass electrode. Ultra- filtration and dialysis.

(Pre-requisite: BCH 201 & 202) 

Recommended Texts: 1. Principles of Biochemistry by Lehninger, 6th Edition (Worth Publishers)

                                               2. Essential Techniques of Biochemical Analysis Anene et al., (2011) Kriscona Publishers

                                               3. Tools of Biochemistry by Cooper, T.G.. John Wiley & Sons N.Y.

BCH 363: GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY I                                                                   (1 Credit)

Introduction to Biochemistry Laboratory:  General information about Practical Biochemistry. Collection of specimen; laboratory instructions; Quantitative and qualitative assays in biochemistry. Safety in laboratory experiments. pH Dissociation and Buffers: Relevance of pH and Buffering; pH indicators and pH meter; Acid-base titration. General Tests of Carbohydrates, Lipids, Vitamins and Proteins. At Least three experiments to be conducted for each class of molecules. Quantitative Analysis of Urine: At Least four experiments to be conducted. Quantitative Analysis of Blood/Serum: At Least four experiments to be conducted. Enzyme Assays: Enzymes and Isoenzymes; Estimation of amylase in plasma; Urease activity and the effects of inhibitors. Effect of pH, T0, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration on the hydrolysis of Starch by Amylase. Demonstration of Some Techniques Used in Biochemistry: Electrophoresis, Chromatography, Cell Fractionation and Centrifugation. 

(Pre-requisite: BCH 201 & 202) 


MCB 311: MICROBIAL GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY                                                 (3 Credits)

Nucleic acids as genetic information carriers: experimental evidence. DNA structure: historical aspects & current concepts, melting of DNA, types of DNA. DNA replication in prokaryotes: types of polymerases, steps: initiation, elongation (Asymmetric & dimeric nature of DNA Polymerase III & simultaneous synthesis of leadind & lagging Strands), termination. DNA replication in eukaryotes: types of polymerases, replication origins & initiation, steps involved, synthesis of telomeric DNA. Various modes of replication. Superhelicity in DNA, linking number, topological properties, mechanism of action of topoisomerases. Fine structure of a gene in prokaryote; the rII locus, complementation test, recombination mapping, deletion mapping, cistron, recon, muton.. Mutation: spontaneous mutation , Induced mutagenesis- mutagens(physical mutagens: non ionizing radiation ; chemical mutagens: Base analogues , alkylating agents, deaminating agents, intercalating agents & others), molecular mechanism of mutagens. Structural features of RNA (mRNA, tRNA, rRNA). Transcription in prokaryotes: RNA polymerase, promoter, steps: initiation, elongation & termination, antitermination. Trancription in eukaryotes: types of RNA polymerases ( I, II & III), promoter, enhancer & silencer sites for initiation, transcription factors, steps: initiation, elongation & termination. Inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Post trancriptional modification of mRNA: capping, polyadenylation & splicing (group I introns, group II introns, hn RNA using spliceosome/snurposome). Ribozymes. Regulation of gene expression : operon concept, negatve & positive regulation, instability of bacterial mRNA, inducers and corepressors, catabolite repression. Negative regulation-E. coli. lac operon; positive regulation- E. coli. ara operon; regulation by attenuation- his and trp operons. Suppressor mutation: intragenic mutation & intergenic mutation. Detection & isolation of mutants. DNA repair mechanism: repair by direct reversal, excision repair, recombinational repair & SOS repair. Recombination: general principles. Plasmids (types of  plasmids- F plasmids, R plasmids, Col plasmids & Ti plasmid ), control of copy no. and incompatibility. Gene transfer mechanisms: transformation, transduction, conjugation. Mapping and sequencing the genome. Transposable element: mechanism of transposition. Bacteriophages, lytic phages-T7 and T4. lysogenic phages-λ & P1. M13 & φX 174. Recombination & genome Mapping in viruses.  Microbial genetic & design of vaccines, BCG and design of vaccine for TB & leprosy. DNA vaccines design & advantages. Anti-termination-N protein and nut sites in lambda. Global regulatory responses; heat shock response, stringent response and regulation by small molecules such as cAMP and ppGpp. Regulation of rRNA and tRNA synthesis. Basic features of the genetic code. Protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; steps-details of initiation, elongation & termination, roles of various factors in the above steps, inhibitors of protein synthesis. Synthesis of exported proteins on membrane bound ribosomes: signal hypothesis. Post translational modification of proteins.

MCB 331: MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY AND METABOLISM                                                             (3 Credits)

Nutritional requirements of major groups of microbes (bacteria & fungi); Nutritional uptake; transport across the membranes and cell wall (diffusion, passive diffusion, active transport, group translocation and iron uptake). Physiology of growth and kinetics, Growth curve, generation time, growth kinetics measurement of growth (biomass, turbidity, dry weight, protein content), environmental factors affecting microbial growth. Nitrogen fixation in symbiotic and free living system, oxygen and hydrogen regulation of nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification and ammonifying bacteria, Pathway of nitrate assimilation in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic systems, transamination and deamination reactions. Photosynthesis:  Absorption of light, photosynthetic ans accessory pigments, ( chlorophyll, bacteriochlorophyll, carotenoides,  phycobilliproteins), Oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthesis in prokaryotes, non cyclic electron transport; phosphorylation; Calvin cycle; effect of light, temperature pH and CO2 on photosynthesis; Photosynthetic yield and Photorespiration. Respiratory metabolism: Glycolytic pathway of carbohydrates breakdown, embden Meyer hoff pathway,Kreb's cycle and Entner-Duodoroff pathway, Phospho-ketolase pathway; Pentose phosphate pathway; oxidative and substrate level phosphorylation, gluconeogenesis, glyoxylate cycle, fermentation of carbohydrates, homo and heterolactic fermentation. Microbial metabolism: Anabolism, catabolism; Sulphur metabolism, Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines.

CHM 321:  Organic Chemistry II                                                                                                                 (2 Units)

Alcohols and their reactions. Ethers and Epoxides. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives. Aldehydes and Ketones. Carbanion 1 and B-Unsaturated compounds, Carbanion II. Amines; Aromatic and Alicyclic Chemistry. Polyfunctional compounds. Heterocyclic Chemistry.

CHM 331:  Physical Chemistry II                                                                                                                (2 Units)

Chemical kinetics. Chemistry thermodynamics Law II and III of thermodynamics. Entropy conditions for equilibrium (Hemnholtz and Gribb free energies), Relation between free energy and equilibrium constant. Phase equilibrium, Phase compound and degree of freedom. Deduction of phase rule, application to one and two components systems. Nernst distribution Law, Clausius  Clayperon equation.  Troutons rule. Introduction to statistical thermodynamics properties of electrolyte.

Pre-requisite:  CHM 213





BCH 411: BIOSYNTHESIS OF MACROMOLECULES                                                                          (2 Credits)

Structure and functions of macromolecules. Identify at least 5 macromolecules, compare and contrast various macromolecules. The most abundant naturally occurring monosaccharides. Describe the structure of the haemoglobin and relate this to its functions. Storage and structural aspects of physiologically important polysaccharides. Biological importance of cellulose and the application of its derivatives in the food industry.  Storage and Structural polysaccharides. Amylose, amylopectin and glycogen as storage polysaccharides. Types of homopolysaccharides. Physiological importance of selectins, biological heteropolymers. Glycogen storage diseases, lipopolysaccharides and Heparin. The chemical structure for any alditols of structural importance in living organisms. Compare and contrast between cellulose and chitin with respect to their structure, occurrence and digestibility. Keratin Sulphate, Heparins, Hyaluronic Acids and Chondroitin Sulphate. Microbial polysaccharides describe in details a known microbial polysaccharide. Mucopolysaccharides: Combined techniques of gas chromatography and Mass spectrometry in the structural analysis of oligosaccharides. Capsular polysaccharides. 3-D structure of polysaccharides. Peptidoglycans; various genetic disorders associated with mucopolysaccarides metabolism.     Bacterial cell wall. Highlight of the structural necessity for cell wall in bacteria. Brief description of Gram positive bacterial cell wall. Mucin; Highlight of the major differences between the cell membrane of gram positive and gram negative bacteria with reference to the basic chemical structures,.Synthesis of complex lipids. Types of chondroitin; synthesis of murein; roles of bactoprenol in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides in the cell wall of bacteria. Basic structural features of N- and O- linked glycosidic attachment in glycoproteins. Synthesis of nucleic acids: Genesis of nucleic acid structures.  Identify at least seven groups of scientists that participated in the development of the structure of nucleic acids and the DNA. The helical structure of the DNA. Carbohydrate-derived antibiotics. Comprehensive account of the principle of mode of action of antibiotics. Mode of action of polyene antibiotics. Antibiotics and the cell wall function of bacteria.  Examples of aminoglycosidic antibiotics. Dextrans and ascorbic acids. Natural glucans; role of glucono oxidase in the inability of man to synthesize ascorbic acid. Biochemical role of vitamin C. Properties and uses of dextrans. Comprehensive account of the biosynthesis of Dextrans.

(Pre-requisite BCH 311)

Recommended Texts:  1. Biochemistry by Stryer, 6th Ed. 

                                                2. Organic chemistry of biological compounds by Baker, R..

BCH 413: METABOLISM OF NUCLEIC ACIDS                                                                                      (2 Credits)

Structure and Function: Nucleoside and nucleotides- classification, structure and reactions; properties of nucleotides- absorption spectra, tautomerism, phosphodiester bonds in nucleic acids, base pairing and hydrogen bonding Brief review of the chemistry and functions of nucleic acids. Genome organization and biosynthesis of proteins.  Purine and Pyrimidines Organization: Nucleotide and nucleic acid synthesis, salvage and de- novo pathways and regulation; degradation of nucleotides, nucleic acid, purines and pyrimidines. Abnormalities in nucleic acid metabolism- xeroderma pigmentation and skin cancer; Lesch-Nyhan syndrome arthritis and gout etc

(Pre-requisite BCH 201 & BCH 202)

Recommended Texts: Biochemistry by Stryer, L.. 6th Ed.

BCH 415: METABOLIC REGULATION                                                                                                     (2 Credits)

Conditions, classes and experimental approaches to metabolic control. Integration of metabolic pathways to emphasize the relationship of Krebs's cycle to protein, carbohydrate, lipid and nucleic acid metabolism. Turnover rates and metabolic pools. Significance of compartmentation in metabolism. Regulation of enzymes of metabolic pathways- feedback inhibition vs. synthesis. Catabolite repression and product repression, the lactose operon and arabinose operon. Identification of different regulatory mechanisms in metabolic pathways.

(Pre-requisite BCH 311, BCH 313, BCH 315)

Recommended Texts: Biochemistry The Chemical Reactions Of Living Cells 2d Ed by  VoHansford,

BCH 431: INDUSTRIAL BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                               (3 Credits)

A brief review of microbial physiology and genetics. A review of general metabolic pathways. Control and application in industrial processes. Continuous culture methods, principles and applications. The chemostat and its applications in industrial fermentations. Fermentations – alcoholic amino acids, antibiotic and other secondary metabolite. Primary and secondary metabolism. Process evaluation and development.  Overproduction of metabolite – amino acids, taste enhancers, vitamins, toxins etc. methods for screening and selecting microorganisms of industrial importance. Induction of mutation in microorganisms and plants for the purpose of over-production. Strain selection/ development and enhancement. Gene dosage and its application in industrial processes. Microorganisms in biotechnology. Biochemistry, technology and products of fermentation. Cell and tissue culture. Immobilized cells and enzymes. Bioreactors; biological regulation and process control; product recovery. Bioinstrument design and manufacture. Secondary metabolism and biotransformation, process evaluation, development, quality control and industrial standards. Manufacturing firms; laws, guidelines and instructions.

(Pre-requisite BCH 227, BCH 311 & BCH 371)

Recommended Texts: Biochemistry of Signal Transduction and Regulation 3d ed - Gerhard Krauss

BCH 441: TISSUE BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                           (2 Credits)

The liver: Intercellular organization, Functions of the liver; excretory functions, detoxification reactions, urea synthesis; disorders and importance glucostatic function.  Kidney, renal function and Urine: Structural organization and urine formation; osmoregulation and renal excretory mechanisms; tubular transport mechanism; acid-base regulation; renal function indices. Muscle: Structure and composition of muscles. Biochemistry of cardiac muscle. Energy requirements and energetics of muscular contraction. Adipose tissue: Structural organization and their metabolism. Chemical composition and physiochemical properties of elastin and collagen. Collagen biosynthesis. Neurochemistry: General design of the nervous system; the nerve cells or neurons; different types of nerve cells (motor and sensory neurons); Biochemical aspects of brain structure, including techniques of fractionation, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ion transport and membrane potential action (molecular mechanism of impulse transmission). Concept of synapses; types of synapses- chemical and electrical (potential) synapses; Body fluids Chemistry: Define blood; composition of blood; Highlight the functions of the blood; haematological parameters; Description of the red blood cells and its related indices (Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RCDW); Description of the white blood cells and its differentials (eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes); Clinical relevance of alterations on the haematological parameter; Constitution and function of lymph and other body fluids. Biochemistry of vision.Hormones, Physiological actions and Biochemical mechanisms: Chemistry and biochemistry of selected hormones. Hormonal control of metabolism. General treatment of hormones of lower animals.

Recommended Texts: 1. Marks' Basic Medical Biochemistry 4th Ed 2012

BCH 443: PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                            (2 Credits)

Organization of plant cells. Structure of plant cell wall and functions of organelles. Plant cell wall- three dimensional structure, composition and function. Lignin biosynthesis and synthesis of secondary products. Stages in plant development, totipotency, plant cell tissue and organ feature; seed germination and growth. Photosynthesis – C3 -, C4, and Crasulassean Acid Metabolism (CAM) in plants. Photorespiration. Nitrogen metabolism- nitrogen cycle, free amino acid (non- protein amino acids), pyrimidines, purines and nucleosides in plants. Transport and storage of amino acids in plants. Classification of plant proteins. Cyanogenic glycosides- structure and toxicity. Plant root and soil interaction. Plant exudates, symbiotic and non- symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Phytohormones and related compounds: auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, ethylene and other plant growth regulators. Herbicides- mechanism of action, residue determination and toxicity. Nitrogen compounds- classification, structure and biosynthesis of alkaloids, chlorophyll, indole and amines. Plant phenolics- structure, function and biosynthesis of phenols, phenolic acids, phenyl acetic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, quinines,

(Pre-requisite BCH 201 & 202) 

Recommended Texts: 1. Heldt - Plant Biochemistry 3rd ed.

                                                2. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants. B. Buchanan, W. Gruissem & R Jones Eds.

BCH 451: PHARMACOLOGICAL BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                              (2 Credits)

Chemotherapeutic agents; definition, structure function relationship, principles of drug designing. Pharmacokinetics and metabolic/biochemical factors that influence drug action. Theories of the mechanism of drug action.  Drug metabolism phases; drug distribution bioavailability, drug reservoirs, plasma protein and tissue binding, redistribution, blood-brain barrier, foetal placental barrier; excretion (renal, biliary and faecal excretion by other routes: sweat, saliva, breast milk. Drug receptors, selective toxicity and physiological biochemical effects of some selected drugs. Drugs affecting the CNS opium and other addictive. Cellular metabolism in infected cells, biochemical aspects of host-parasite relationship and drug resistance. Antimalarial drugs. Metabolic effects of antibiotics. DNA and RNA antimetabolites.  Chemotherapeutic agents; definition, structure function relationship, principles of drug designing. Pharmacokinetics. Nigerian medicinal plants in the managements and therapy of common ailments in Nigeria (Malaria, sickle cell anemia, hepatitis etc)

(Pre-requisite BCH 201, BCH 202 & BCH 321) 

Recommended Texts: 1. Toxicological Chemistry and Biochemistry, Third Edition – Stanley E.N 3rd Ed.

BCH 433: FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                   (2 Credits)

An introduction to the theory and applications of physical and chemical methods for determining the constituents of food. Food processing, preservation and storage of traditional foods- roots, and stem tubers, fruits and fruit drinks, seeds and grains, green vegetables. Food Nutrients: Review of the structures and sources the various food items (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, mineral elements, water, vitamins and their co- enzyme derivatives: A, Bs, C, D, E, K; lipoic acid, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin, choline) and their roles in nutrition. The nutritive value of food and the metabolic deficiency and excesses. Nutritional Status and Nutritional Requirements: Recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Assessment of nutritional status- Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), measurement and  factors that influence BMR in infant, adults and the aged, pregnant and lactating mothers. BMI. Public Health Aspects of Nutrition: Assessment of nutritional states, aetiology and malnutrition. Environmental and social factors related to malnutrition. Nutritional disorders: prevention and therapy- Protein- Energy Malnutrition (PEM), obesity and diabetes. Nutrient requirements in relation to physiological stress- physical activity, ageing, disease and pregnancy. Browning reactions: Food spoilage (chemical and microbial) Quality control of food. Food additives and preservatives. Biochemistry of food processing. Brewing, cheese and yoghurt. Enzymes in the food industry. Food analysis- proximate analysis, moisture and dry matter; organic and inorganic matter; ash. Food additives- monosodium glutamate, artificial sweeteners, coloring; food poisoning and intoxication; aflatoxin; prevention and cure of poisoning. Antinutrients (anutrients) in food- phytohaemagglutinin, protease inhibitors, phytate, phytestrogen, saponin, tannins, polyphenols, flatulence factors, amylase inhibitors, antivitamins, amino acid analogues, goitrogens etc. Beneficial effects of nutrients.

(Pre-requisite BCH 201 & 202) 

Recommended Texts: 1. Nutrition, "An integrated approach" by Pike, R.L. and Brown. M.L.

                                               2. A biochemical approach in Nutrition by Freedland and Briggs.

BCH 481: SPECIAL TOPIC/SEMINAR IN BIOCHEMISTRY                                                             (2 Credits)

NOTE: Topics to cover areas such as hormones, immunochemistry, oncology, brain biochemistry, plant, medical biochemistry, genetic engineering etc. these may be taught or seminars may be given by academic staff and students, etc.

BCH 453: IMMUNOCHEMISTRY                                                                                                               (3 Credits)

Basic immunobiology, Antigens, antibodies and their reactions. Concepts and types of immunity (humoral and cell mediated) immunogens, antigens and haptens. Classification and structural motifs of immunoglobulins. Antibody combing sites and structure function relationship, complement system and fixation, organization of immunoglobulin genes, Molecular basis of antibody diversity. Production, detection and uses of monoclonal antibodies. Concepts of clinical immunology; immune tolerance factors affecting immune response.   Innate and acquired immunity- features, mechanisms and determinants; cells and organs of immune system; evolution of immune system. Antibody structure and function- classification, polyspecific and monoclonal. Lymphocytes- isolation and function. Antigen- antibody interaction- characteristics, precipitation, lattice theory, agglutination and haemagglutination. Detection of antigens- antibody reaction- immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, fluorescence quenching, radioimmunoassay. Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody technique. Hypersensitivity, allergy and causes. The major histo-compatibility complex (MHC), MHC restriction, cytokines, the complement system and its activation. Immunologic tolerance, autoimmunity and immuno-deficiency, transplantation, immunology of parasitic diseases.

(Pre-requisite: BCH 201, 202 & BCH 315) 

Recommended Texts: 1. Voet and Voet (2012): Biochemistry 4th Edition, (Wiley)

                                               2. Essential Immunology by Roitt (Blackwell Scientific Publications)

                                                3. Understanding Basic Immunology  & Immunochemistry by Awah et al.

BCH 472: ADVANCED ENZYMOLOGY                                                                                                     (2 Credits)

Enzyme active sites and regulatory sites. Multienzyme systems. Mechanisms of action of well known enzymes; (chymotrypsin. lysozyme, ribonuclease, alcohol dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase). Mechanism and kinetics of bi-substrate reaction (sequential, ping-pong and other mechanisms). pH and enzyme catalyzed reactions, temperature and enzyme action. Energy of activation. Arrhenius plots. Enzyme assays. Criteria for determining purity of enzymes. Enzyme reconstitution, regulation of enzyme activity and synthesis. Inhibition studies- reversible and irreversible inhibition, substrate and product inhibition- competitive, non- competitive, uncompetitive and mix –type. Chemistry of enzyme catalysis, rate enhancement, binding energy, transition state stabilization, induced fit, covalent catalysis, acid- base catalysis, proximity effect, metal ion catalysis. Steady state enzyme kinetics to include mechanisms of equilibrium binding, derivation of binding equations. Scatchard plot. etc. Detailed treatment of Allosteric behavior of enzymes. The Hill's plot. Adair model, Monod, Wyman, and Changeux. Models for Allosteric behavior. The Koshland –Nemethy –Filmer Model. Explanations of positive and negative cooperativity by these models. Examples of Allosteric enzymes (ATPase Phosphofructokinase, protein kinase).

(Pre-requisite BCH 371) 

Recommended Texts:   1. Enzyme structure & mechanism by Fersht.

                                                  2. Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics by Cornish-Bowden..

                                                  3. Quantitative Problem in Biochemistry by Dawes, E.A.

BCH 474: BIOTECHNOLOGY & GENETIC ENGINEERING                                                              (3 Credits)

Replication, transcription and translation- a brief review. The genetic code and its relationship to cellular functions. DNA replication in a cell- free system. Genetic transformation, transfusion and conjugation. Gene mutation; mutagenic agents and their application to gene transfer. Gene mapping, structure of eukaryotic genome. Recombinant DNA and its application- genetic engineering for improved plants and animals, metabolic engineering, protein engineering, and antibody engineering. Gene cloning and gene therapy. Hybridomas

(Pre-requisite: BCH 413) 

Recommended Texts: 1. biology - introduction to molecular genetics and genomics

BCH 462: ADVANCED BIOCHEMICAL METHODS   (Pre-requisite BCH 361)                                (1 Credit)

Spectroscopic techniques: principles, instrumentation, application of x- rays, gamma rays, resonance, infra-red and Raman spectroscopy, electron spin resonance, nuclear resonance, magnetic resonance, circular dichroism and luminometry. Mass spectrometric techniques: principles, instrumentation and applications. Mass spectrometer, electron impact  ionization, chemical ionization, field ionization, ion desorption methods, ion evaporation methods, analyzers, detectors and tandem mass spectroscopy. Electrochemical techniques- principles, potentiometry, voltmetry. Advances in biochemical instrumentation- radioassays, immunoassays, biosensors etc. Students to be introduce to operations of information.  Students will therefore go round under the supervision of lecturers to laboratories housing specialized equipment. They will also be effectively introduced by the means of practicals to such techniques as electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, Gel Electrophoresis, Column Chromatography, Gas Chromatography, HPLC etc. Part of the course will also cover the effective use of the library, preparation of dissertations or theses, papers or journal publications, and journal reviews. Special assignment and essays will be given to students.

(Pre-requisite: BCH 363)  

Recommended Texts: 1. Biochemical Experiments by Bruening, G. Criddel, R.

BCH 464: INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEM. LIT. AND PHIL. OF SCIENCE                                (2 Credits)

Introduction to Biochemical literature will involve one hour lecture and library study for two hours per week. Students will be given assignments which they are expected to complete during one or two library studies and present a written discussion in class. History and philosophy of science will consist of lectures on the growth and development of biochemistry research. Effective use of library for literature search for preparation of dissertations, theses  and papers for publications in scientific journals. Citing of reference and how to carry out a literature search. Development of the science of macromolecules. Modern trends in natural products chemistry. Development of Immunology and Chemotherapy. The search for information continues. Database and computer search techniques. Presentation of case studies/long essays. The middle age scientists to present day experimentalists. Relationship between science, religion and philosophy. Use of chemicals and biological abstracts. How old is Biochemistry. From vitamin to intermediary Metabolism. Assignment and long assays. Landmark in vitamin and hormone research. Growth of microbiology and genetics/Long Essays. Characteristics of a scientific paper. Making summary. Progress in biochemistry in the last 50 years. The Nobel Foundation and its role for modern day science.

BCH 454: BIOINORGANIC CHEMISTRY                                                                                                (2 Credits)

Trace elements in biological systems: Identification of the trace elements in biological system. Physiochemical properties and biological functions of trace elements; Implication of the deficiencies; Specify the sources of trace elements.. Ligand complexes and their biochemical significance. Incorporation of Nitrogen and Sulphur:  Sources of nitrogen and sulphur in the biological system; Description of the roles of nitrogen and sulphur in the biological system; Mechanism by which nitrogen and sulphur are incorporated into the biological system (nitrogen fixation). Metals in Biological Processes: Na, K, Mg, Ca: Identify the metals in biological processes and their dietary sources; Role of metals in biological processes: Na, K, Mg, Ca; Describe why these metals are essential for the survival of an organism and how they are regulated; Deficiency diseases associated with these metals. Ionic Gradients: Describe ionic gradients; Explanation of the significant roles of ionic gradients in energy metabolism (Na+-K+ pump and Ca2+ pump); Inhibitors Mineralization: Definition of mineralization; Process of mineralization; Differentiate between the action of para thyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin and calcitriol; Lipid osteoblast and osteoclast; osteoporosis; role of  calcitonin and calcitriol in bone mineralization; vitamin D in bone development. Blood Clotting: Identify the clotting factors; Pathway for blood clotting; Roles of calcium in the blood clotting processes. Metalloproteins: Types, functions and biosynthesis of metalloproteins; Processes in which metalloproteins participate in the body

(Pre-requisite BCH 311, BCH 313& BCH 315)

Recommended Texts: 1. Analytical Biochemistry 3rd ed - David Holme, Hazel Peck

                                               2. Inorganic Biochemistry of Iron Metabolism From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Consequences, 2nd Ed. By  Robert R. Crichton

BCH 476: BIOCHEMICAL REASONING                                                                                                  (1 Credit)

NOTE: Evaluation and design of experimental biochemistry from available information and data. Analysis, interpretation and inference drawing from biochemical research data from literature. The course approach should involve take-home assignments to be discussed later in class. Solving numerical problems should be extensively treated in this course. Evaluation and design of experimental biochemistry from available information and data. Analysis, interpretation and inference drawing from biochemical research data from the literature. Topics to cover include: Protein/nucleic acids Chemistry and Forensic Science. Enzymology. Membrane Phenomena. Carbohydrates. Molecular Biology. Clinical Biochemistry. Lipids

BCH 492: RESEARCH PROJECT                                                                                                                (6 Credits)

Independent research findings into selected areas/topics of interest to the academic staff. Students will be required to carry out literature survey on topics, perform experiments and produce short reports. Students will be subjected to both seminar and oral examination on the project undertaken.


BCH 482: BIOCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY                                                                                               (2 Credits)

Biochemical toxicology, definition and scope, absorption and distribution; toxicokinetics, metabolism of toxicants; comparative toxicology; physiological factors affecting metabolism of Zenobotics elimination of toxicants and their metabolities, toxicant-receptor interactions, genetics poisons' chemical carcinogenesis; trace element toxicity, hepatotoxity.

(Pre-requisite: BCH 451) 

Recommended Texts: 1. Molecular and Biochemical Toxicology

BCH 467: MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY                                                                                                        (2 Credits)

Biochemical pharmacology: Introduction. Absorption and distribution. The blood-brain barrier; placental transfer of drugs. Biotransformation of drugs their conjugation and excretion. Factors affecting metabolism. The micosomal enzymes system. Drug-receptor interactions. Bioassay of drugs, pharmacokinetics, the importance of plasma levels of a drug. Drug discovery, design and development. Drug Action: Neurohumoral transmission: Neuromuscular and ganglionic blockade sympathominetics; adrenaline receptors; adrenergic neuron antagonists. Autocoids; Histamine; Serotomin; polypeptides; prostaglandins and related substances; antiallergic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic agents. Generally-acting drugs. Opiates, receptors and antagonists; Dopamine receptors and antipsychotic drugs; antidepressants; anti-anxiety drugs. Selective toxicity; The basis of selective toxicity. Survey of host defence mechanisms and the use of chemotherapy. The bacterial cell membrane, effect on its permeability – role of antifungals. Folic acid and the role of anti-metabolites. Drug resistance, protein synthesis and its interference. Protozoology – parasites, life cycle of material parasite – other example of protozoal infestations. Viruses, their definition and classification. The biochemistry of viral replication. The role of interferon and other antivirals. Neoplasia – role of anticancer agents.

Recommended Texts: 1. An Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry Graham L Patrick