DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
The department of Business Administration and Management is one of the Departments in the Faculty of Management Sciences in Madonna University Okija.
The department started in 1999 and runs a 4 year degree progrmme that leads to award of Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) in Business Administration and Management. This degree is acquired through course work and research report.
The department of Business Administration and Management is designed to expose students to the field of management and administration including theoretical and practical knowledge by the process of thorough and intensive classroom teaching. It also prepares students to acquire spirit of originality, total being, and creativity so as to face, challenges of self reliance and contribute to national .development the students-after graduation will be able to cope with problems of the environment and relate successfully and cooperatively with other persons.
The degree programme in the department of Business Administration and Management has the following specific objectives in relation to education in administration and management.
This programme aims at exposing the students to the dynamics of management and administration, which will prepare them to work in both the private and the public sectors of the economy, understand, exploit and if necessary, change the environment.
The programme is designed to equip students with basic Knowledge and skills needed for understanding and analyzing problems in relation to management of business organizations of any type.
The students are equipped with the knowledge and skills required for identifying and defining problems and making suitable decisions by use of management science tools/techniques. The ability to solve management problems scientifically by the use of thorough knowledge of research process and procedures for investigating issues are acquired by the students through the programme.
This programme is designed to inculcate in the students an awareness of and sensitivity to environmental factors and conditions in order to take appropriate decisions.
Leadership skills, human relations, analytical, evaluative, synthetic and communicative skills needed for managing human organizations are also inculcated in students
Admission is usually through UME, organized by the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB).
Applicants should possess the Senior Secondary School Certificate or the General Certificate of Education Ordinary level or their equivalent with credit in five subjects including English Language, Mathematics, and Economics.
Direct entry admission can be offered to applicants with National Diploma (ND) from any accredited polytechnic/College, Diploma from Madonna University with a minimum of a lower credit in relevant discipline. The candidate must also satisfy the minimum entry requirements stated above.
Students can seek for transfer into the Department of Business Administration and Management from relevant courses in Madonna University. Such students must possess credit passes in Mathematics, English, and Economics. Such students must have completed at least one academic year in their respective departments.
At the beginning of every session, all students register for all their courses for the session, using registration forms provided by the Examination and Records Department of the Registry. Plans are on ground to effect on-line registration
DURATION OF DEGREE PROGRAMS
Generally, the degree programmes in the department will be a minimum of 3 years duration for direct entry students and 4 years duration for the UTME students. The maximum number of years allowable for a course of study to earn a Bachelors Degree in 6 years.
Every student is required to register for an approved combination of courses with a minimum of 15 units and a maximum of 24 units per semester making a minimum of 169 units for the programme.
CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT (CA)
There shall be continuous assessment in all courses offered in the department. The continuous assessment consists of written assignments, term papers, mid semester examinations, periodic test/quizzes and attendance at lectures and tutorials. The C.A shall contribute a maximum of 30% of the total marks for each course at the end of the semester.
MODERATION AND EXAMINERS
All the examinations from 100 to 400 levels shall be moderated by external examiners appointed for their different levels. External examination consists of vetting of course out lines, the question papers, participating in the marking of scripts and examination of research projects.
The department also has an examination officer responsible for proper conduct of examination. He/She works with the HOD who is the Chief Examiner of his department and relates with Examination and Records Department of the University and the Departmental Board of Examiners.
The Head of Department appoints a course adviser (Academic Adviser) for each level. The Academic adviser shall advise the student on University regulations. All level advisers shall ensure that the students register properly, sign course forms etc.
Course delivery is by lectures and tutorials. The various techniques for evaluation include quizzes, home work assignments, term papers, and end of semester examinations. The end of semester examination has 70% and others have 30% Final year students are required to defend their project.
A letter grade and a numerical point shall be awarded to each student based on total scores on all the evaluation criteria. The final marks a student may score, the corresponding letter grades and the numerical points are clearly indicated as shown below.
The class of degree to be awarded is dependent upon the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) which is obtained by computing the grades obtained in all the courses for the semester. Where a student repeats the same course or its substitute, once or more before passing it, grades scored at each and all attempts shall be included in the computation of the Grade Point Average (GPA). Classes of degree are to be awarded depending on the CGPA obtained. The classes of degree and the required CGPA are specified under.
|MARKS|| LETTER GRADE|| GRADE POINT|
|70 - 100||A||5|
|60 - 69||B||4|
|50 - 59||C||3|
|45 - 49||D||2|
|40 - 44||E||1|
CLASSIFICATION OF DEGREE
Degrees offered by the university are classified based on the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) obtained by the student. The details are presented below.
Class of Degree Cumulative Grade Point
First Class 4.50 - 5.00
Second Class (Upper Division) 3.50 - 4.49
Second Class (Lower Division) 2.40 -3.49
Third Class 1.50 - 2.39
COMPUTATION OF GPA AND CGPA
To determine the quality points (QPs) obtained in each course, the credit units (CUs) assigned to courses are multiplied by the grade point (GPs) earned by the student in the course. For instance, BAM 111 has 3 units, if a student scored 65% B which has 4 points, the quality points is 3 x 4 = 12. Grade Point Average (GPA) is obtained by dividing the total quality points earned in a given semester by the credit units registered from the semester. For instance, if a student measured 68 total quality points in a semester that has 16 credit units; the GPA is 68/16 = 4.25
0. Management/Administrative Theory
1. Industrial Relations/Organizational Behaviour
2. Quantitative Courses
3. Business and Economic Theory
4. Ethics/Consumer Behaviour
5. Entrepreneurship/Corporate Planning
6. Management Information/Communication
7. Research Methodology/Seminar
8. Human Resources
FOUR YEAR B.Sc DEGREE PROGRAMME
FIRST YEAR COURSES
S/No Course Code/ Course Title Units
1. BAM 101 Introduction to Business I 3
2. BAM 121 Business Mathematics I 3
Required Ancillary Courses
3. ACC 101 Principles of Accounting I 2
4. CSC 101 Introduction to Computer 2
5. ECO 101 Elements of Economics I 2
6. LAW 111 Nigerian Legal System I 2
General Studies Courses
7. *GST 111 Communication in English I 2
8. GST 113 Nigeria People and Culture 2
9. *GST 121 Use of Library, Study Skills and
Information Technology (ICT) 2
10. * GST 123 Communication in French 2
11. GST 125 Introduction to Entrepreneurship
Studies I 2
Total Units 24
1. BAM-102 Introduction to Business II 3
2. BAM 122 Business Mathematics II 3
Required Ancillary Courses
3. ACC 102 Principles of Accounting II 2
4. CSC I22 Application of Computer 2
5. BKF 116 Money and Banking 2
6. ECO 102 Elements of Economics II 2
7. LAW 122 Nigerian Legal System II 2
8. PSY I01 Introduction to Psychology 2
General Studies Courses
9. GST 122 Communication in English II 2
10. GST 112 Logic, Philosophy and Human
11. GST 128 Communication in French II 2
12. GST 142 Communication in German 1
13. GST 102 Fundamental Philosophy 1
Course for direct entry student
Total Units 24
SECOND YEAR COURSES
S/No Course /Code Course Title Units
1. BAM 201 Elements of Management I 3
2. BAM 221 Business Statistics I 3
Required Ancillary Courses
3. ACC 201 Financial Accounting I 2
4. ACC 211 Cost and Mgt. Accounting I 2
5. BKF 123 Introduction to Finance I 2
6. MKT 201 Principles of Marketing I 2
7. ECC 203 Micro Economic Theory 2
8. PAD 101 Introduction to Public Admin. 2
General Studies Courses
9. GST 215 Introduction to Entrepreneurship
Studies II 1
10. GST 221 History and Philosophy Science 1
11. GST 211 Fundamental Theology 1
12. BAM 261 Business Communication 2
INS 101 Elements of Insurance 2
Total Units 23
1. BAM 202 Elements of Management II 3
2. BAM 222 Production Management 3
3. BAM 224 Business Statistics II 3
Required Ancillary Courses
4. ACC 202 Financial Accounting II 2
5. ACC 212 Cost and Mgt Accounting II 2
6. MKT 221 Principles of Marketing II 2
7. PAD 222 Elements of Government 2
8. ECC 202 Macro Economic Theory 2
General Studies Course
9. GST 222 Peace Studies and Conflict
10. GST 224 Fundamental Ethics 1
11. GST 252 Bioethics 1
Total Units 22
THIRD YEAR COURSES
S/No Course Code /Course Title Units
1. BAM 301 Management Theory 3
2. BAM 311 Personnel Management 2
3. BAM 313 Organizational Behaviours 3
4. BAM 321 Quantitative Techniques 3
5. BAM 361 Management Information System 2
Required Ancillary Courses
6. ACC 311 Management Accounting 2
7. BKF 473 Financial Management 2
8. LAW 213 Business Law 2
Total Units 19
S/No Course Code/ Course Title Units
1. BAM 382 Human Recourses Management 3
2. BAM 332 Labour Economics 3
3. BAM 323 Business Forecasting 2
4. BAM 372 Research Methodology 3
Required Ancillary Courses
5. MKT 466 Marketing Management 2
6. BKF 252 Public Finance 2
7. BAM 342 Consumer Behaviour 2
8. BAM 324 Investment Analysis and
Portfolio Management 2
Total Units 19
FOURTH YEAR COURSES
S/No Course Code/ Course Title Units
1. BAM 431 Business Policy I 3
2. BAM 401 Advanced Management Theory 3
3. BAM 471 Seminar 2
4. BAM 403 Comparative Management 3
5. BAM 411 Industrial Relations 3
6. BAM 451 Corporate Planning 3
7. BAM 405 International Business 2
Total Units 19
S/No Course Code Course Title Units
1. BAM 432 Business Policy II 3
2. BAM 422 Analysis for Business Decision 3
3. BAM 452 Entrepreneurship and Small
Business Mgt 3
4. BAM 442 Business and Society 2
5. BAM 434 Managerial Economics 3
6. BAM 499 Project 6
Total Units 20
Total units for the Four Year Degree Programme 169
DETAILED COURSE DESCRIPTION
BAM 101 Introduction to Business I 3 units
A study of the nature of business organizations. The character of business from a social, legal and economic perspectives. Scope of business, Definition of business, External properties of business, Role of business, Types of economic systems. Why study business. Forms of ownership: Sole Proprietorship, Partnership, Joint Stock Company, Statutory Corporations/Public Enterprises, and Cooperative Societies. Management and Organization: Nature of management, Functions of Management, Line and Staff functions in organizations. Production: Types of production, Production Processes. Marketing: Marketing concepts, marketing functions. Finance: Types of financing: Short term, Medium term, and Long term financing. Factors influencing choice of funds. Types of shares. Accounting: Purpose of accounting, principles of accounting, Double entry bookkeeping, Day books, Ledger accounts, The Trial Balance, Profit and Loss Account, Balance Sheet.
BAM 121— Business Mathematics I 3 units
Mathematics and symbolic logic; Inductive and Deductive Systems; Elementary Algebra and operations with positive. And negative numbers. Concept of sets. Mapping and Transformation. Introduction to Complex numbers; introduction to Vectors: Matrix and Determinants.
BAM 102 Introduction to Business II 3 units
(Pre-requisite: BAM 111).
This course is designed to familiarize the students with forms of business and management process. Business Integration and Combination: Types of Integration; Reasons for Business Integration; Problems of Business Integration. Government/Business Relations: Government and Business;. Government in Business; Reasons for Government involvement in Business. Business .-Organizations and Social Responsibility: What is social responsibility of business? Social issues facing business organizations. The debate on the social responsibility of businesses - Nigeria's corporate experience. International Business/International Trade: Theories of International Trade, Reasons for International Trade, Terms of International Trade. Management of Industrial Relations: Trade Union formation and growth, Trade Union objectives, Problems of Trade Unions Formation of Employers' Associations, Objectives and functions of Employers' Associations. The role of government in Labour-Management relations. Employee Needs in an Organization: Managing individual needs in an organization; Introducing some theories of motivation: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, McGregor's Theory X and Y, Herzberg's Two Factor Theory, etc. Insurance: Meaning and Principles of Insurance: types of insurance, Importance of Insurance. Problems of Nigerian business enterprises.
BAM 122 Business Mathematics II 3 units
(Pre-requisite: BAM 112).
Discrete and continuous Variables; The Straight Line in various forms; The Circle; Trigonometric Functions; Exponential functions. Maxima, Minima and Points of Inflexion; Integral calculus; Integration by Substitution and By Parts: Expansion of Algebraic Functions; Simple Sequences and Series.
BAM 201 Elements of Management I 3units
Basic Concepts in Management: Management principles. Functions of the manager. Planning: nature and purpose. Organization: nature and purpose. Span of Management Departmentation, Line and Staff Authority, Service" Departments.
BAM 221 Business Statistics I 3 units
Meaning and scope of statistics. Methods of collecting and analyzing business data. Frequency distribution and graphical representation. Describing business data.; Measures of location; Measures of variability; Elementary; treatment of probability, the normal curve and sampling distribution. Linear regression and correlation: business forecasting and time series analysis, Hypotheses testing. Application of statistics to such areas as investment analysis, educational administration and business sector situations.
BAM 261 Business Communication 2 units
The meaning and role of communication in business. organizations. Upward and downward communications. Communications barriers. Communications and electronic information processing systems. The Telecommunications link, modems, microwaves, fibre optic cable and its advantages. Types of communication using new technology. The Telephone, fax machine, and computers linked into Wide Area Networks WANS. Electronic mail, e-mail, EDI Electronic Data Interchange. The Internet The information super highways Local area network (LANS)
BAM 202 Elements of Managements II 3Units
Elements of Pre-requisite: BAM 211).
Staffing and Directing: Selection of managers, Appraisal of Managers, Management Development, Nature of directing, Motivation, Leadership, Controlling: The Control Process, Control Technique, recent developments in the control process. The Nigerian environment: Management problems in Nigerian, challenges of indigenization, Transferability of Management systems.
BAM 222 Production Management 3 units
Elements of Production: Production and Process Design and Management, Faculty Location and layout; Modern Tools and Machinery of Production, Standards definition, Line Balancing, Automation, Production Scheduling and Control. Work Study, Maintenance and Tools and Equipment. Quality Control. Inventory Control, Project Planning, Forecasting, Aggregate Planning Control and Material Resource Planning.
BAM 224 Business Statistics II 3 units
(Pre-requisite BAM 214).
Probability theory, Stochastic variables, multiplication and addition rules, formulation and combinations, Bayes Theory. Discrete and continuous probability distributions as used in business, e.g. Binomial, Multinomial, Poisson and Normal Distributions. Chi-Square, Simple Regression and Correlation. Sampling: Types and methods, Points and Payoff tables. Decision Trees, Analysis of Variance, Quality control in business. Decision Theory, Parametric and Non-parametric statistics; Distinctions and application in business.
BAM 301 Management Theory 3 units
Concept of theory in the physical and social sciences. Levels of theory. The
Links between management theories and management models. Practice of management conduct as a test of good management theory. Existing difficulties of developing useful management theories in Nigeria and other developing countries. Theories of Management, e.g. The Scientific Management movement, The Human Relations Movement, The Systems Movement, and the Managerial behaviourial Movement, Theory X and Theory Y. The Grid Approach, Participative Models. Management by Objectives, Quantitative and behavouarial control models, testing specific theories and models in Nigeria. Practice in constitution management theories and models from the Nigerian socio-cultural experiences of managing extended family issues, of settling group conflicts, of securing productivity at work, maintaining control over the forces in the environment. Theories observable in the way Nigerian parastatals are being managed. Expatriate management approaches to work in Nigerian organizations.
BAM 311 Personnel Management 2units
Personnel Management Principles, Approaches of Personnel Management, Line and Staff organization structures, Personnel Policies. Employment: Procedures and Processes. Advancement; training and executive development; Compensation; Job Evaluation System, Incentive System. Job Analysis for Manpower Planning, Safety and Health Programming and Employee Service Programmes. Employee Integration need Patterns, Motivation, Processing of grievances and Communication process.
BAM 313 Organization Behaviour 2 units
Concepts of behaviour, organization, managers, 'Administrators, and performance. Individual behaviourial processes such as personal system, self concept development, interaction styles, group behavioural processes such as informal structures, norms of work and play, status-based rewards and punishments, leadership, task distribution, and performance appraisal. Theories of organizational behaviour and relevance to Nigeria. Behavioural model-building.
BAM 321 Quantitative Techniques 3 units
Introduction to Linear Programming: the Simplex Method and Graphical Method of Solution. Network Analysis. Queuing Theory, Mankov Chain, Transportation Model, Algorithm, Matrices and Decision Tree, Assignment Problems
BAM 361 Management Information System 2units
Introduction to and fundamentals of data processing: brief history and conventional data. Processing methods; manual methods and mechanized method. Classification of systems and their relative merits. Closed loop and open loop systems: Effect on Time Lag; the Total System approach and objectives; Total systems and sub systems.
Data processing and management information systems (MIS). The organization of MIS including the use of mechanical and electronic accounting machines, flow charting and the principles of systems design and documentation. Managerial uses of the information output as a basis for developing criteria and systems. Information needs of management and design of MIS. Computer and data processing Evolution of the computer and the computer system input, out put and central processing unit Hardware and software, introduction to common computer programming languages used in business (Cobol, Fortran. SPSS, etc). Electronic, data processing (EDP) methods, batch processing, real time process and the management of EDP. Business systems hierarchical structure of organizations; the sub-optimization issue.
BAM 382 Human Resources Management 3 units
Supply and demand characteristics of labour-by-type Organization of the personnel functions; Manpower Planning; Motivation; Leadership styles; Training and Development, Performance appraisal, Disciplinary procedures, Employee welfare.
BAM 333 Labour Economics 2 units
Nature of labour problems in developing countries Labour force, Definition and Concepts, Determination of sizes and composition of labour force; Concepts of Unemployment; Industrial and Occupational Distribution of Labour Force. The informal Sector and the Modem Sector, Labour Market; Theories, Economics of Wage Determination, Features of Nigerian labour Market, Manpower Development.
BAM 323 Business Forecasting 2units
General economic and business environment of the firm in forecasting: the micro and the macro environment. Long-range and short range forecasting. Methodology in forecasting: the statistics approach e.g. time series and regression analysis (distribution of simple regression coefficient, multiple regressions), model building (econometric) approach, the subjective approach to forecasting in business
BAM 342 Consumer Behaviour 2 Units
Basic generalization about consumer behaviour, Consumer buying motives: social, cultural, personal and psychological factors. Nature and stages in consumer decision process. Problem recognition as reflected and demographic influences. The consumer search process determinants, sources and impact. Evaluating criteria of consumer behaviour information process. The mechanics of choice in consumer behaviour (having consumer belief and attitudes) general strategies. Outcome of choice process. Consumerism, Motivating consumers.
BAM 372 Research Methodology 2 units
Skills of scientific investigation, Information gathering, Analysis and Interpretation in dealing with business and organizational behaviour problems in Nigeria; The art of problem identification and analysis, Data gathering, Analysis and Report Writing; The Problems and Prospects of business research in a seller's market like Nigeria.
BAM 324 Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management
The Nigerian Financial System. Money and capital market instruments. Stock exchange in Nigeria and their mechanism of operations. Securities analysis: Fundamental/Traditional, Technical/Chartists, and Random work schools. Efficient market hypotheses. Models of portfolio management and portfolio revision.
BAM 431 Business Policy I 3 units
Concepts of strategy in relation to business, Corporations, and Management. Linkage between organization and their environments. Concepts of policies, decision-making, business objectives, performance criteria, structure, an managerial behaviours. Practice in calculating simply financial and economic indices from business data and other accounting information, learning the behaviourial implications of courses of action. Analyzing a firm opportunities and threats strengths and weaknesses Selecting strategies and structure of Public Liability Companies from their published annual reports Developing clear business objectives, setting clear strategies and policies, and presenting structures that are capable of being used in implementing chosen strategies.
BAM 401 Advanced Management Theory 3 unit
Overview of Systems Approach and Methodology, Data Processing Systems Design; Management Information System, Human factors; Man-machine System, Design method. Training, Cybernetics, Concept of Feedback and Control System; Cybernetics and organization Cyber-filter
BAM 471 Seminar 2 unit
Consideration, identification, and examination of some of the major issues, problems and concerns presently facing management and administration in Nigeria
BAM 403 Comparative Management 2 units
The comparative approach to management and Administration. Elements of Management and Administration. The skill of management in private and public sectors. The military administrator, the civil servant the manager as interchangeable experts. Constraints of organizational setting on the management of group activities. Profiles of Nigerian executives that have moved from public to private sectors, and vice versa. The use of management consultant and management contracts in streamlining the operation of Nigerian Railways, Nigerian streamlining the operation of Nigerian Railways, Nigerian .Ports Authority, Nigerian Airways, and the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. Theories of Comparative Administration. Theories of Comparative Management. Constraints imposed on managerial discretion in public corporations. A human resources management model that meets the needs of private and public sectors, selected I problems in comparative management and Administration. /Motivating personnel. Controlling and rewarding performance, training and developing staff, introducing change, and modifying employee behaviour. The Change-agent role of Nigerian professionals in undertaking: comparative management and administration research.
BAM 411 Industrial Relations 3 units
The Concept of Industrial relations, Trade Union Characteristics. Industrial Relations Laws in Nigeria. Types of Union; Internal Structure and Government of Unions; Trade Union Federation; Central Labour Organization and International Affiliations; Union Solidarity and Check-off System, Collective Bargaining; Industrial Disputes; Dispute Settlement; Joint Consultation; The State and Industrial Relation, Comparative Industrial Relations.
BAM 451 Corporate Planning 3 units
The concept and theory of planning, Strategic Planning, Environmental study and analysis, Technological forecasting, Socio-Political forecasting, Industry analysis, planning tasks and techniques, Operational Planning and the resources allocation process Organization for planning; Organization and behavioral planner; Managing and corporate planning process.
BAM 405 International Business 3 units
Nature and environment of international business; consideration of the financial problems of firms engaged I international business including the effect of the host country policies on private investing flows. Multinational business operations; Financial structures and financing: Marketing in the international areas; Technical and procedural aspects of import and export business operations; Analysis of international trade terms, Sales term, Documentation and governmental regulations Methods of international payments mechanics of foreign exchange markets.
HAM 432 Business Policy II 3 units
(Pro-requisite: BAM 411)
Organic Business functions of marketing, production,] finance, and personnel in Nigeria. Management process of corporate planning budgeting and control, business performance appraisal, managing by objectives, motivating group and individual efforts, and generally relating an organization to the changes taking place in its environment. Predicting the dynamic environment. Impact or environmental changes on the strategies and performance of a firm. Analysis of the role of employee managerial behaviour in success or failure of strategy implementation. Integrated Analysis. Recent developments affecting the strategy formulation and implementation processes-of firms in Nigeria.
BAM 422 Analysis for Business Decision 3 units
Elements of Decision Analysis, Types of Decision Situations, Decision Trees, Operational Research Approach to Decision Analysis; Systems and System Analysis Modeling in Operations Research Simulation.
Mathematical Programming, Transportation Model, Assignment Model; Conflict Analysis and Game Theory.
BAM 452 Entrepreneurship and Small Business Mgt. 3 units Entrepreneurial theories. Interpersonal characters and behaviourial traits of entrepreneurs. Theory and practice of small business management. Focus on effective management of small firms, essentials of planning and organizing the firm, financial and administrative controls, evaluation of alternative business forms, and comparism of new business start-ups. The role of small business in Nigerian society. A comprehensive course in management with emphasis on the process of establishing, organizing, and operating small business enterprises. Assessment of marketing potential in small businesses, funds procurement, designing and accounting system, planning and controlling operations and managing growth. The importance of all business management and its relationship to Nigerian economy and the opportunities and requirements unique to operation and management (3 -Units)
BAM 442 Business and Society 2 units
Nature of business organizations. Business objectives. Business decisions. Business ethics. Business and consumers. Business and employees. Business and government. Business and environmental quality. Concept of social responsibility. Business strategy. Role of employee and managerial behaviour in the success of business strategy.
BAM 434 Managerial Economics 3 Units
Scope and nature of managerial economics; The Theory of decision making; make optimization and sub-optimization models, six fundamental concepts; incremental reasoning in marginal analysis, incremental cost in opportunity cost, make or buy take or leave it. Diminishing marginal productivity; and equip-marginal allocation, Linear Programming, Capital Budgeting, and Market Structures.
BAM 499 Research Project 6 units
Application of business research methods. A planning programme of observation, study and work in a selected firm or organization. A project paper is required in the course and students are required to apply the concepts of research techniques applicable to business decision making.