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   Department of Optometry Information

 PROFILE OF THE HEAD OF DEPARTMENT - OPTOMETRY​

DR. EZINNE NGOZI​

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PROFILE HERE












SUBJECT CODE

 SUBJECT CODE
BIOLOGYBIO
PHYSICSPHY
CHEMISTRY CHM
MATHEMATICS MTH
ANATOMYANT
BIOCHEMISTRY BCH
PHYSIOLOGYPIO
COMPUTER  SCIENCE CSC
MICROBIOLOGYMCB
OPTOMETRYOPT

 

       STRESS AREAS (GST COURSES)  CODING
PHYLOSOPHY0
THEOLOGY1
GERMAN4
BIOETHICSS5
    STRESS AREAS (OPTOMETRY) 
OPTOMETRY (INTRODUCTION ., GENERAL, LABS, CLINICS, ETC)0
OPTICS1
CONTACT LENS2
OCULAR HEALTH3
LOW VISION4
ORTHOPTICS5
PUBLIC HEALTH6
SEMINAR7
RESEARCH/PROJECT9

 

COURSE CODING INDEX (subject areas).

Each course code used in the department is made up of three letters indicating the subject area and a three-digit number. The three-digit number indicate the following:

First digit:

This represents the level of the course, i.e. 1 for 100 levels, 2 for 200 level, 3 for 300 level e.tc.

Second digit:

This indicates the stress area of the course as shown in the table above

Third digit:

Indicates the semester so as to give the course a specific identification. Odd numbers for first semester, even numbers for second semester. 

  

 THE DOCTOR OF OPTOMETRY PROGRAMME- SUMMARY

(I)  MAXIMUM CREDITS REGISTERABLE PER SESSION- 50 CREDITS

(II)  THE PASS MARK FOR ALL LEVELS - 50%  

(III)  CARRYOVER COURSES MUST BE REGISTERED FIRST

(IV)  CARRY OVER COURSES BETWEEN 100 AND 200 LEVELS MUST BE CLEARED BEFORE GETTING TO 400 LEVEL

(V) GUIDELINES TO PREREQUISITES MUST BE ADHERED TO ACCORDING TO THE INSTRUCTIONS OF THE COURSE ADVISERS.

(VI)  ALL STUDENTS REGISTERING FOR 500 LEVEL COURSES MUST HAVE PASSED ALL 100 – 400 LEVEL COURSES; OR FLSE, PROBATE SO AS TO ENABLE THE STUDENT CLEAR ALL THE 100 -400 LEVEL COURSES NOT PASSED

(VII) ALL CLINICAL COURSES AT 400 AND 500 LEVELS MUST BE PASSED BEFORE ENTRY TO 600 LEVEL CLINICALS. THIS MUST BE STRICTLY ADHERED TO BY ALL STUDENTS

(VIII) ALL COURSES ARE CORE COURSES INCLUDING 100 LEVEL GST COURSES, AND MUST BE PASSED BEFORE GRADUATION.

(Ix)  BEFORE ENTERING FINAL YEAR, THE STUDENT MUST NOT HAVE

MORE THAN 10 CREDIT LOAD OF CARRY OVERS.

(X) THE STUDENT SHOULD PASS WITH A MINIMUM OF 30 CREDITS BEFORE GOING TO THE NEXT CLASS (FROM 100 TO 500 LEVELS). THE STUDENT MUST NOT PROCEED TO THE NEXT CLASS WITH MORE THAN 15 CREDITS OF CARRYOVER.


100 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLEUNIT
GST  111COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH I2
MTH 111GENERAL MATHEMTICS I3
BIO  111GENERAL BIOLOGY I (THEORY & PRACTICALS)3
BIO  113INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS2
CHM 111BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INORGANIC  CHEMISTRY3
PHY 113GENERAL PHYSICS PRACTICALS  I1
CHM 113BASIC PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY1
PHY 111GENERAL PHYSICS I3
GST 123COMMUNICATION IN FRENCH1
GST 109FUNDAMENTAL PHILOSOPHY * 1
GST 113NIGERIAN PEOPLES & CULTURE2
GST 125INTRODUCTION TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP STUDIES I2
GST 121USE OF LIBRARY STUDY SKILLS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)2
 SUB-TOTAL CRADIT LOAD FIRST  SEMESTER   26

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLEUNIT
 GST 122COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH II2
MTH 124GENERAL MATHEMATICS II3
CHM 122GENERAL CHEMISTRY II2
CHM 124GENERAL PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY II1
PHY 122GENERAL PHYSICS II3
PHY 124PRACTICAL PHYSICS II1
BIO 122GENERAL BIOLOGY II3
BIO 123GENERAL BIOLOGY PRACTICAL1
GST 112 LOGIC, PHILOSOPHY & HUMAN EXISTENCE2
GST 142COMMUNICATION IN GERMAN   * 1
GST 102 FUNDAMENTAL PHILOSOPHY II * 1
CSC 122INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER2
PHY 132GENERAL PHYSICS III( VIBRATIONS WAVES & OPTICS )2
 SUB-TOTAL CRADIT LOAD SECOND  SEMESTER   24
 TOTAL CREDIT LOAD PER SESSION FOR 100 LEVEL 50

 

200 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLEUNIT
ANT 211GROSS ANATOMY I (UPPER & LOWER  LIMBS,HEAD AND NECK)3
OPT 201HISTORY OF OPTOMETRY/ INTRODUCTION TO OPTOMETRY 2
PIO 211  HUMAN PHYISOLOGY I (THEORY / PRACTICALS) 3
MCB 211INTRODUCTORY  MICROBIOLOGY   3
BCH 211INTRODUCTORY  BIOCHEMISTRY  3
GST 211FUNDAMENTAL THEOLOGY * 1
GST 215 INTRODUCTION TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP II2
OPT 203INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY2
BCH 213BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICALS 1
ANT 213HISTOLOGY/BASIC EMBRYOLOGY 2
 SUB-TOTAL CRADIT LOAD FIRST  SEMESTER  200 LEVEL 22

SECOND SEMESTER

 COURSE CODECOURSE TITLEUNIT
OPT 212PHYSICAL OPTICS3
 PIO 222  HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY II 3
BCH 212FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY3
ANT 212GROSS ANATOMY II (THORAX;  ABDOMEN / PELVIC REGIONS)2
GST 222HISTORY & PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE  * 1
OPT 204GEOMETRICAL OPTICS 3
GST 252BIOETHICS  * 1
GST 224FUNDAMENTAL ETHICS  *1
GST 222PEACE & CONFLICT RESOLUTION STUDIES 2
OPT 216MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY2
  SUB-TOTAL CRADIT LOAD SECOND  SEMESTER  21
 TOTAL CREDIT LOAD PER SESSION  FOR 200 LEVEL 43

 

300 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

 COURSE CODECOURSE TITLE UNIT
OPT 313PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS I 2
OPT 311OPHTHALMIC OPTICS  I2
OPT 301GENERAL  OPTOMETRY I2
ANT 335NEUROANATOMY2
OPT 337GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY3
OPT  335OCULAR BIOCHEMISTRY3
OPT 333OCULAR ANATOMY  2
OPT 319DISPENSING OPTICS 2
 SUB-TOTAL CRADIT LOAD FIRST  SEMESTER  18

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLEUNIT
OPT 314PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS II 2
OPT 302GENERAL OPTOMETRY II2
PIO 334NEUROPHYSIOLOGY2
OPT 332 OCULAR PHYSIOLOGY2
OPT 334BACTERIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY2
OPT 312OPHTHALMIC OPTICS II 2
OPT 316DISPENSING OPTICS LAB1
OPT 304BIOSTATISTICS2
OPT 306DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY2
  17
 TOTAL CREDIT LOAD PER SESSION 35

 

400 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

 COURSE CODECOURSE TITLEUNIT
OPT 437GENERAL PATHOLOGY3
OPT 403DIAGNOSTIC OPTOMETRY I2
OPT 413PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS III2
OPT 421CONTACT LENS I 2
OPT 435OCULAR PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY2
OPT 407OPTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTATION 2
OPT 461GENERAL  EPIDEMIOLOGY  2
OPT 401 CLINICAL PROCEDURE I 3
  18

SECOND SEMESTER

COURSE CODE

COURSE TITLE

UNIT
OPT 402CLINICAL PROCEDURE  II3
OPT 408APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY FOR OPTOMETRISTS2
OPT 422CONTACT LENS II 2
OPT 404DIAGNOSTIC OPTOMETRY II2
OPT 432OCULAR  PATHOLOGY  I 2
OPT438ANOMALIES OF BINOCULAR VISION2
OPT414CLINICAL OPTICS 2
OPT406CLINICAL PROCEDURE& PRACTICE  3
 SUB-TOTALCREDITS SECOND SEMESTER- 400 LEVEL 18
 TOTAL CREDIT LOAD PER SESSION36


500 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLEUNIT
OPT 501CLINICAL PROCEDURE III3
OPT 561ENVIRONMENTAL VISION2
OPT 551ORTHOPTICS2
OPT 503PEDIATRIC OPTOMETRY 2
OPT 521CONTACT LENS CLINIC 2
OPT 591SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHODS2
OPT 507VISUAL ANALYSIS  I2
OPT 531OCULAR PHAMACOLOGY / THERAPEUTICS3
 OPT 535OCULAR PATHOLOGY II2
 SUB-TOTAL CREDITS- FIRST SEMESTER 500 LEVEL 20

SECOND SEMESTER   

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLEUNIT
OPT 502CLINICAL PROCEDURE IV3
OPT 534ENDOCRINOLOGY AND NUTRITION2
OPT 504MEDICAL LAW & ETHICS2
OPT 506GERIATRIC OPTOMETRY 2
OPT 536OCULAR PATHOLOGY III 2
OPT 542LOW VISION AND OCULAR PROSTHESIS2
OPT 500PRACTICE MANAGEMENT2
OPT 536 ADVANCED HEALTH SCIENCE 2
OPT 508VISUAL ANALYSIS II3
 SUB-TOTAL CREDITS-SECND SEMESTER 500 LEVEL 20
 TOTAL CREDIT LOAD PER SESSION- 500 LEVEL 40


600 LEVEL

COURSE CODECOURSE TITLEUNITSSEMESTER(S)
OPT 605EXTERNSHIP 61ST AND 2ND
OPT 603HOSPITAL PRACTICE 32ND
OPT 607COMMUNITY EYE HEALTH 31ST AND 2ND
OPT 671SEMINAR ON RESEARCH TOPICS3 1ST AND 2ND
OPT 633ADVANCES IN OPTOMETRY 22ND
OPT 602PRIMARY EYE CARE 81ST AND 2ND
OPT 691RESEARCH PROJECT 61ST AND 2ND
OPT 608VISUAL PSYCHOPATHOLGY 32ND 
 TOTAL34 


DEGREE SYLLABUS

For the award of the degree of doctor of optometry, all courses as stipulated earlier are CORE courses. These courses must be taken, passed and will be used in computing all degree examination results according to instruction from the senate of madonna university PRE-REQUISTIES are courses, which the student must take and pass before he /she can register for the more advanced courses. 

 

COURSE OUTLINE / DESCRIPTION

100 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

GST III: COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH I                                            (2UNITS)

The basic objective of the course, use of English, is to prepare the students to acquire certain language skills to succeed in their courses and in the society. The course teaches ability to read, comprehend, interpret, and summarize materials from various registers and styles reflecting various disciplines or subject of study; ability to apply the knowledge of the structure, vocabulary, idioms, oral forms and general patterns of the English language:

Vocabulary Development: Word Roots, Affixes, Synonyms, Antonyms, Homonyms, Homophs, and Homographs.

Denotation and connotation, Collocations, Idiomatic expression, Figures of speech and Proverbs-similes and Metaphors, etc.

 Registers, Formal   informal speech Patterns, Slang Reference.

Parts of Speech and Word Functions in Sentences.

Paragraph Writing, Coherence and Spellings.

Punctuation and Capitalization, Spellings.

Study Skills: Developing Effective Listening Technique Aids to Listening; What to Listen to; Listening for Instructions. Note Making Skills.

Using the Dictionary, Pronunciation, Consonants, Vowels etc.

MTH 111: GENERAL MATHEMATICS 1                                             (3UNITS)Real number system: Simple definition of integrals, rational and irrational numbers. The principle of mathematical induction; real sequences and series, elementary notion of  convergence of geometry, arithmetic and other simple series; theory of quadratic equations. 

Simple inequalities: absolute values and the triangle inequality.

Identities; partial fraction.

Sets and subsets: Union, intersection, compliments, properties of some binary operations of sets: distributive, closure associative; commutative laws with examples. Relations in a set: Equivalence relation; Properties of set functions and inverse functions.

Permutations and trigonometric function of angle of any magnitude. Addition and factor formulae.

Complex numbers: Algebra of complex numbers. The Argand diagram, the de Moivr's theorem, the root of unity.

BIO 111: GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 (THEORY & PRACTICAL)         (3UNITS)
Cell structures and organization, plant and animal cells, functions of cellular organelles, diversity and characteristics of living things. General reproduction, mitosis, meiosis, abnormalities associated with gene crossing, heredity and evolution. Concept of ecology and types of habitats, diversity of plants and animals. Food chains and food webs, interrelationship of organisms. Elementary biochemistry of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.  

BIO 113: INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS                                          (2UNITS)
Heritable and non-heritable characteristics.  Quantitative inheritable. Variation in genome structure. Aspect of human genetics, pedigree analysis, gene interaction, mutagenesis. Sex determinations, linkages and sex silages.

CHM 111: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY    (2UNITS)
Atomic structure and periodic table.  Development of configuration of elements. Stoichemistry and mode concepts. Electronic theory of atoms and valence. Chemical bounding. Formulary and IUPAC basic nomenclature of compounds.  Concept of matter. Law of chemical combination by mass.  Wave theory, principle of quantum mechanics. Periodic table and periodicity of fundamental properties. Hydrogen, Nuclear chemistry and Radioactivity and their application. General study groups to emphasis periodicity. Selected transition elements.

PHY 113: GENERAL PHYSICS 1   (PRACTICALS)                            (1UNIT)
This is a laboratory-based course, and thus we emphasize on qualitative measurement. The treatment of measurement and graphical analysis. A variety of experimental techniques will be employed. The experiments include studies of matter; the oscilloscope; mechanical systems; electrical and mechanical resonant system, light; heat; viscosity etc as covered in Phy. 111. 

CHM 113: BASIC PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY   1                                 (1UNIT) 
Structure of solid. Kinetic theory of gases and gas laws. Colligative  properties of dilute solutions. Raout's law, Henry's law and Molecular weight determination. Thermo chemistry and Hess's law. Chemical Equilibrium. Law of mass action, reaction rate and chemical energetics. Electrochemistry. Ionic equilibrium. Theories  of acids bases and indicators. Catalysis. Ionics. Phase equilibrium, one and two component system. Enthalpy, entropy and free energy.

PHY 111: GENERAL PHYSICS (2UNITS)
Mechanics: scalars and vectors addition and resolution of vectors. Rectilinear motion and Newton's law of motion; inertial mass and gravitational mass; free fail; projectile motion; deflecting forces and circular motion; Newton's  law of gravitation; satellites, escape case velocity; gravitational potential; potential well, special case  of circular motion; momentum and the conservation of a momentum; work power energy for a gravitational  field and electric bodies. Thermal physics and properties of matters: temperature heat, work, heat capacities; second law Carnot cycle; thermodynamics ideals gas temperature scale; thermal conductivity radiation; black body and energy spectrum; stelan's law kinetic model of gas; equation of state; concept of diffusion mean free path; molecular speeds; Avogadro's number; behavior of real gases. A model for a solid; crystalline structure; model for matter; inter-particle forces in solids, liquids and gases.   

GST 123: COMMUNICATION IN FRENCH                                        (2 UNITS)
Introduction to French alphabets and numeracy for effective communication (written and oral); conjugation and simple sentence construction based on communication approach, sentence construction; comprehensive and reading of simple. 

GST 113: NIGERIAN PEOPLES & CULTURE                                     (2UNITS)
This course will emphasize on the social issue of current significance and their impact on individuals / groups etc, concepts, sociological schools of thought, family formation processes, cultural practices and the health of the individual / community e.g., FGM, child labour etc, Roles classifications.

GST 125: INTRODUCTION TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP STUDY (2UNITS)
The course provides both theoretical and practical approach to insight to introduction to entrepreneurship; theories, concerts and practices; forms of business and new venture creation; business plans- designs and implementation; factors influencing the location of small business; planning the business, organizing the business, and controlling the business; directing the business and controlling the business; students are expected to be familiar with feasibility study, project evaluation and cash flow analysis.

GST 121: THE USE OF LIBRARY AND STUDY SKILLS AND ICT  (2UNITS)
Brief history of libraries; library and education; university libraries and other types of libraries; study skills (reference services); types of library materials; using resources including e-learning, e-material etc.  Understanding library catalogues (card, OPAC etc) and classification; copying and its implications; database resources; bibliographic citations and referencing; study techniques and basic research methods. 


SECOND SEMESTER
GST 122: COMMUNICATION IN ENGLISH 11                                   (2UNITS)

Introduction, speaking for academic purpose and objectives. The communication process, speech situations, general guideline for effective speaking, organization, speaking at lectures, tutorials and seminars, asking and answering questions.

Reading comprehension: the writer and the reader, actual reading activity; other reading comprehension skills.

Continuous writing: the essay, acquiring writing skills, types of essays, approaches to essay writing; suggested topics for essay writing.

General report writing:  introduction, definition, types of reports, characteristics of reports, style, student research report, and review of literature.

Report writing in the sciences: introduction, overall language use, model report; result and discussion of results; conclusion.

Business correspondence: Introduction, general principle in writing business letter. Designing Curriculum Vitae (CV) or Resume'.

The term paper:  definition, choosing a topic, delimitations of a chosen topic, collecting material for term paper, compiling a working bibliography, compiling a reference list. The APA style.


Each unit covers 2 weeks work.

MTH 124 GENERAL MATHEMATICS II                                                       (2UNITS)

The course consists of geometric representation of vectors in 1, 3 dimensions, components direction cosines; addition of scalar, multiplication of vectors; linear independents; scalar and vector products of two vector; differential and integration of vectors.  

CHM 122: GENERAL CHEMISTRY 11                                                           (2UNITS)

Historical survey on the development and importance of organic chemistry. IUPAC nomenclature and classification of organic compounds. Homologous series. Elemental analysis and molecular formula, structural isomerism, isolation and purification methods, concept of functional group resonance and aromatics. Electronic theory in organic chemistry, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, cyclihydro-carboxylic acids, amines and aromatic compounds, comparison of phenols with alcohols. 

CHM 124 GENERAL PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY II

Preparation of organic compounds and other negated compounds in chiding their purification, separation of coloured compounds using chromatographic techniques e.g. paper and thin-layer chromatography, practice of solvent extraction techniques for liquids etc, preparation of double salts etc.

PHY 122: GENERAL PHYSICS 11                                                                    (3UNITS)

This course covers Electrostatics induction; Coulomb law, Gauss law. Electric field, electrostatic potential, capacitance; dielectric; electric current; circuits; analysis; alternating current; electromagnetic wave; particle duality; the Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom; nuclear properties, radioactive decay; nuclear fission and fusion; elementary particles theory.

PHY 124 PRACTICAL PHYSICS II                                                                    (1UNIT)

Emphasis will be on the topics covered in phy122.

BIO 122: GENERAL BIOLOGY 11                                                                      (3UNITS)

Ecology, ecosystems, biotic and abiotic factor, interrelationship between animals and plants.  Adaptation of plants and animals to their environments. Types of population dynamics, static, climax communities, types and factors affecting them. Edaphic factors, rainfall, wind, relative humidity, light intensity etc.  Modification of the nature ecosystem.

BIO 123: GENERAL BIOLOGY PRACTICALS                                               (1 UNIT)

Testing for the presence of food substances; diffusion and osmosis experiments. Observation of cells and tissues of selected plant and animal species. Investigations on physiological processes affecting photosynthesis; Observation of mitosis in onions bulb.  Observation of cyst and ova of parasitic worms; Observation of fungi hyphae; Observation of bacterial cells; Preparation of microscopic slides; Basics of photometry; calorimetry, chromatography, electrophoresis.

GST 112:  LOGIC, PHILOSOPHY & HUMAN EXISTENCE                     (2UNITS)

Etymological & predecessorial conception of philosophy, philosophy modes and methods, major branches of logic, logic & language, induction & deduction, fallacies, categorical proposition and categorical syllogism.  

CSC 112: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER                                                (2UNITS)

Brief history of computers and computer generation. Classification of computers. Structure of a general-purpose computer. Number systems. The stored programme. Techniques of problem solving. Flowcharting, Stepwise refinement. Algorithm for searching, sorting and merging of ordered lists. Data preparation I / O devices. Data types. Data representation. Data capture problem-oriented languages. BASIC and FORTRAN programming: arithmetic expression; arrays; sequencing, alternation and iteration, sub-programmes and parameters. Elementary numerical Algorithms.

PHY 132 GENERAL PHYSICS III                                                                   (3UNITS)

Mechanics, thermal physics and waves, Space and time, frames of reference, units and dimension. Vector & scalars. Kinematics; fundamental laws of Mechanics, statics, and Dynamics, Galilean Invariance; Universal Gravitation. Work, power and Energy, Rotational Dynamics and angular momentum; conservation laws, Elasticity, Hooks law, Young, Shear and Bulk modulus; Hydrostatics: pressure, buoyancy. Archimedes principles, surface tension, adhesion, cohesion, capillarity, drop and bubbles. Temperature; heat; gas laws of thermodynamics; kinetic theory of sound, applications.    


200 LEVEL 

FIRST SEMESTER


ANT 211:  GROSS ANATOMY OF THE UPPER AND LOWER EXTREMITIES:

Upper limb

Shoulder Girdle: bones, joint &muscles, vessels, Brachial plexus, Axilla, Iymph Nodes and mammary gland

Arm: Humerus And Elbow Joint, Blood Vessels, Nerves, Muscles.

Forearm: Bones, Radio Ulnar Blood Vessels and Nerves.

Lower Limb:

Pelvic Girdle: Hipbone, Sacrum.

Thigh: Femur and Hip Joint, Lumbar and Sacral Plexuses,

Thigh: Anterior Compartment- Muscles, Blood Vessels and Nerves.

Thing: Medical Compartment Muscles, Blood  Vessels and Nerves.

Thing; Posterior Compartment Muscle, Blood Vessels and Nerves, Knee Joint.

Gluteal Religion Muscles, Blood Vessels and Nerves.

Leg: Osteology of Tibia & Fibula.

Leg: Anterior Lateral Compartment:- Muscle, Blood Vessels And Nerves.

Leg: Posterior Compartment, Muscle, Blood Vessels and Nerves.

Foot: Bones, Ankle Joint, Arches of the Foot, Muscles and Vessels and Nerves.    

OPT 201: HISTORY/ INTRODUCTION TO OPTOMETRY              (2UNITS)

Understanding Optometry as a health care profession. Relationship of the profession to others in the eye care field including Ophthalmology and Opticianry. Opportunities available to the Optometrist as a professional. Attitude necessary for the study and practice of optometry  . A general knowledge of the legal status, standards of practice, professional conduct and association. Introduction to Optometric terms, instrumentation and literature. Optometry in America, Asia, Africa and Europe and the historical development and personalities involved; from the ancient times (day of Hammurabi); the middle centuries, the renaissance period; the seventeen century; the eighteenth century. The golden age of optics till present period.

PIO 211:  HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY 1  (THEORY& PRACTICALS)   (3 UNITS)

Overview of physiology and its application: cellular physiology; homeostasis and homeostatic mechanism; physiology of the skin; nutrition and gastro-enterology; circulatory and cardiac physiology; renal physiology; respiratory physiology; reproductive fetal and neonatal physiology; endocrinology and neurophysiology; physiological measurements and factor affecting them. Neuromuscular systems.

MCB 211: INTRODUCTORY MICROBIOLOGY                                    (3 UNITS)

History and scope of microbiology; the general characteristics of microorganisms. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic microorganisms. Bacterial morphology and cell structure.

Growth and reproduction of microorganisms. Biochemical reactions of microorganisms, antimicrobial agents. Systematic classification of bacteria, fungi, viruses' algae and protozoa.

BCH 211: INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY                                    (3 UNITS) 

  •    General Biochemistry
  •    Cellular biochemistry
  •    Proteins
  •    Structure and types
  •    Mechanism of enzyme action
  •    Bioenergetics and energy storage
  •    Carbohydrate biochemistry- Structure and function.  Glycoysis, TCA cycle   Pentose monophosphate shunt Gluconeogenesis
  •    Glycogen synthesis storage and utilization
  •    Oxidative phosphorylation
  •    Mitochondrial structure
  •    Electron transport /PH coupling

GST215: INTRODUCTION TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS II    (2UNITS)

The course is a continuation of GST125 (Entrepreneurial studies I). attention is given to management of people(personal management), materials management and purchasing, money (financial management); machinery (technology) management concept of marketing; market segmentation; product; price; promotion; place; salesmanship; personal selling; available trade for entrepreneurs and decision making; students are expected to be exposed on some of the entrepreneurial skills.  

OPT 203 INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY                                              (2UNITS)

Course outline includes the following. Nature, definition, history, perspective and applications of sociology, specifically in terms of concepts like society, culture, roles, socialization, social institutions groups and community. Social sanctions. 

BCH 213:      BIOCHEMISTRY PRACTICALS                                                (1 UNIT)

Review of general biochemistry; chemical elements and the periodic table. Electronic configuration, electronic orbital, valency of atoms and types of chemical bonds; metals and non- metals; acids and bases, highlighting Lewis conception; carbon, SP3 hybridization, the tetrahedron and covalent bond; functional group.  Water and its special properties. Carbohydrates: the glycosidic bond; relationship of photosynthesis and tissue respiration.  Introduction of the cell and hierarchy of organization of living things. Macromolecules, organelles, cells, tissue, organs and organisms. Amino acids, proteins; the peptide bond and polypeptides; proteins as biological catalysts, immune agents and structural molecules. Carbohydrate as storage molecule of easily accessible metabolic energy. Fatty acids and lipids: the ester bond of lipids and triglycerides; Fat as efficient energy storage molecule. Nucleic acids and nucleotides: DNA and RNA as polymers of nucleotides; the phosphodiester bond; Gene and genetic information transcription and translation.

ANT 213 HISTOLOGY AND BASIC EMBRYOLOGY

Introduction to embryology, introduction to the male and female genital system, gametogenesis. Uterine cycle, ovarian cycle, development of the graffian follicles and ovulation: fertilization, cleavage, morula, blastocyst formation, implantation.

Bilaminar disc, amniotic cavity, yolk sac, trilaminar layer, intraembryonic coelom formation, primitive streak. The human embryo, placenta and fetal membranes and body cavities. Somites, blood and vessels formation, folding of the embryo, germ layer derivatives, estimating embryonic age, congenital anomalies. 

Introduction to the cellular system of the body.

Introduction to the primary tissues of the body: Epithelium, connective tissues, muscles, nerves, blood, and skeletal tissues. 

SECOND SEMESTER

OPT 212:      PHYSICAL OPTICS                                                                         (3 UNITS)

Principles of wave optics, interference, diffraction, polarization, radiometry, photometry. The quantum nature of light.  Spectroscopy, lasers and relativistic optics. Gaussian theory: principal points and nodal points, equivalent power and vertex power, field lenses, eyepieces and telephoto lenses.

PIO 222:       HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY II                                                            (3 UNITS)

Renal system and body fluid including control of blood pressure and water balance control of plasma sodium and potassium levels, acid-base balance, etc. Circulatory system including cardiac cycle, blood flow and pressure, lymph formation and function etc.  Endocrine system including hormones, pituitary gland, adrenal cortex, regulation of blood sugar levels, vitamin D, pregnancy and lactation, etc.                                                                                                                                                 Pre-requisite: PIO 211

BCH 212:  FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY                                                   (3 UNITS)

Molecular biology, an introduction

DNA structure and function, RNA structure and function, DNA Replication,

Protein synthesis.

Biochemistry of specialized tissues viz: 

Hormones and growth factors, Muscle, Liver, Nerve, Eye, Nutrition.  Digestion of protein, carbohydrate and lipids, Essential amino acids, Minerals.

ANT 212: GROSS ANATOMY 11 (HEAD/NECK; ABDOMEN /PEVIC REGIONS)

-Osteology skull and vertebrae

-Triangles of the neck, cervical fascia and lymphatic drainage of the head, neck and back.

-Phrynx and larynx.

-Thyroid and parathyroid glands.

-The pterygo-palatine fossae; nose and the paranasal sinuses, oral cavity.

-Face and parotid gland.

-Temporal and infratemporal fossae, scalp and cranial cavity

-Dural sinuses, cranial nerves.

-The ear and eye.

OPT 204:     GEOMETRICAL OPTICS                                                         (3 UNITS)

Basic properties of light- rectilinear propagation, refractive index, wavelength, wave fronts, shadows, pin- hole camera. Huygens's principle.  Refraction at plane surfaces, curved surfaces. Refractive index, apparent depth.  Ray tracing, nodal points, lateral magnification, thin lenses and coaxial systems of thin lenses. The spectrum, dispersion and color. Thick lenses. Aberrations – spherical, coma, oblique astigmatism, curvature of field, distortion, chromatic.  Entrance and Exit pupils, Depth of focus, Depth of field, Field of view. Spherocylindrical lenses, Transposition, The prisms, Mirrors.

GST 222: PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION STUDIES             (2UNITS)

This course focuses on the basic concept of peace and conflict resolution; peace as a vehicle of unity and development; conflict issues; types of conflicts e.g. ethnic/religious /political / economic conflicts; root causes of conflicts and violence in Africa; indigene / settler phenomenon; peace-building; management of conflicts and security; elements of peace studies and conflicts resolution; culture of peace mediation and peace-keeping, Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR); dialogue and arbitration in conflict resolution;   role of International Organization in conflict resolution e.g. economic  community of west African States (ECOWAS); African union; united Nations; communal / indigenous conflicts; individual conflicts terrorism. 

OPT 216:   MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY                                                          (2 UNITS)

a. Introduction to behavioral science of sociology, anthology and social psychology with special reference to the theories and concepts in this field as it relates to health, illness and health care delivery.

b. Sociological and Socio –psychological aspects of health care delivery and illness behavior.

         Sick / illness behavior 

         Correlates of health services

         Utilization behavior, the training of health care providers / leadership behavior

c. Organization theory:

         Application to health system

         Assessing organizational performance in the health  care system

d. Social and psychological factors in the etiology of diseases.

e. Health education: Influencing health status by altering human behavior.            


300 LEVEL

FIRST SEMESTER

OPT 313:      PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS I                                                 (2 UNITS)

A study of the dipodic functions of the visual apparatus consisting of lectures and demonstrations. The eye as an optical instrument, the schematic and reduced eyes. Dioptrics of the eye, optical constants, cardinal points, refractive power of the surfaces and media. Location and size of retinal images, visual angle and size of retinal images. Amplitude of accommodation and prebyopia. Emmetropia, refractive statue of the eye and optical aberrations. Badel,Optometer, Resolution and Visual Acuity. 

OPT 311: OPHTHALMIC OPTICS I                                                             (2 UNITS)

Optical characteristics and design of standard ophthalmic single vision, bifocal, trifocal, progressive lenses and ophthalmic prisms. Emphasis will be placed on physical properties of lens materials including index of refraction, absorptive ability, lens coatings and special application of lens material to different occupations, low vision and sports. Characteristics of frame materials, design and selection Lensometry.

Lens neutralization cylindrical power and toric transpositions. Lens and frame specifications, IPD measurement, centration and decentration

OPT 301:  GENERAL OPTOMETRY 1                                                         (2 UNITS)

Introduction: Review of Ophthalmic Lenses and Prisms. Classification and Correction of Refractive Errors.

Style, Scope and order of general optometric examination using trial lens, phoropter etc.

(a)          Patient's profile (children 0-17, adults 18 -40, presbyopes > 40)

(b)          Case history (routine, contact lens, low vision patients)     

(c)          Preliminary tests begin in the following sequence.

     Pre ocular health assessments

               ●  Focimetry if patient has a habitual correction with the lensometer or alternative(s).and/or

               ●   Visual acuity tests at far and near. (Unaided, aided, pin hole) with acuity charts

               ●   Interpupillary distance with p.d rule or alternatives.

ANT 335:      NEURO ANATOMY                                                                   (2 UNITS)

This course deals with the embryology, anatomy and functions of the central nervous systems, relationship with the eye, vision, neural connections of the eye and related structures; general neurology of the human. Specifically, the photoreceptor, visual pathology, brodmaris  classification of the brain and criminal nerves serving the eyes. 

OPT 337:      GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY                                                 (3UNITS)

General Principles of Pharmacology, Principles and Classification of Autonomic Drugs. Drugs affecting the central nervous system; drug abuse (i) stimulants (ii) depressants (iii) analgesics (iv) sedatives (v) antipyretics (vi) tranquilizers. Muscle relaxants. Anti-diabetics. Oral contraceptives. Introductory toxicology. Adverse effects of systemic drug therapy. Adverse effects of ocular drug therapy. Malaria chemotherapy, vitamins, metazoan.

OPT 335:  OCULAR BIOCHEMISTRY                                                           (2UNITS)

Introduction:  biochemistry of water the cell, cell membrane. Biochemistry of the tear film, aqueous humour, vitreous humour. Biochemistry of the cornea and crystalline lens with emphesis on the structure, metabolism and maintenance of transparency in these tissues.  Biochemistry of the retina rods, and cones, ocular pigments, duplicity theory. Photochemistry of vision. Vitamin A metabolism and vision. Free radicals, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (oxidants).

Antioxidants. The role of free radicals in the pathophysiology of degenerative diseases.

                                                                                 Pre-requisites: BCH213, BCH212, BCH211

OPT 333: OCULAR ANATOMY                                                                        (2UNITS)

This course includes a detailed description of the gross structure of the visual apparatus. The orbit, its contents and related structure. Specific description of the anatomy of all parts; lids, cornea, sclera, choroids, lens and retina.

OPT 319: DISPENSING OPTICS                                                                      (2UNITS)

Bench work terminologies, Bench work stages – centering, layout, cutting, chipping and crumbling.  Edging, drilling, mounting. Bench work assembling. Description and classification of glasses, frames, their specification and measurement. Preliminary adjustment (truing). Horizontal alignment of glasses, vertical alignment. Fitting, cosmetic factors, occupational factors and special considerations. Tinting of lenses. Introduction to contact lens filling. Also filling and fitting of prism components. 


SECOND SEMESTER

OPT 314:      PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS II                                                  (2UNITS)

Sensory aspect of visual perception, ocular motility and international systems. Normal and abnormal binocular vision heterophoria, heterotropia, measurements by dissociation and synoptophore instruments. The visual pathway, disturbance in the neural pathway and factors affecting it. Retina photoreceptors, photochemistry, retina neural connections and neurophysiology. Scotopic and photopic vision. Rodopsin and its transformation. Rods and cones distinction. Retinal stimulation and resultant changes. Electrophysiology of vision – with emphasis on all the techniques applicable to the ocular tissues.

                                          Pre-requisites: OPT 327

OPT 302:  GENERAL OPTOMETRY II                                                          (2UNITS)

Ocular health assessment (using illumination, measurements, with/ without drugs, or staining agents)

  (a)    ●          Anterior segment of the eye and its adnexia 

                                    Examination or the - Lid with pen light, slit lamp, direct ophthalmoscope

                                    Examination of the - Conjunctiva /sclera with pen light/ slit lamp, direct

                                    Examination of the - Cornea with pen light/ slit lamp, direct Ophthalmoscope, keractometer

(b)     ●          Equator 

                                   Examination  of  the Ant. chamber/angle with pen light/ slit lamp, direct ophthalmoscope, gonioscope gonioscopy, in all patient at risk for primary or secondary open or closed angle glaucomas solely for the purpose of identifying risk factors, and etiological differentiation and disease severity.

                                   Examination of the - Ant. Uvea / pupil with pen light slit lamp, direct ophthalmoscope

                                   Examination  of  the   Lens with pen light slit lamp, direct ophthalmoscope

(c)    ●             Posterior segment of the eye

                                  Vitreous media with slit lamp, direct, indirect ophthalmoscopy.

                                 Retina ( the disc and its blood vessels; macula and it periphery ) with slit lamp, direct, indirect ophthalmoscopy,  

                                 Visual pathway - the optic nerve, with indirect ophthalmoscopy/ tonometry (pre-dilatation intraocular pressure measurement is compulsory for all patients 40 and above, confrontation, ishihara test.

(d)                Post ocular health assessment (Binocular vision - unaided and/or aided with patient's habitual correction)

                                 Cover tests (far and near) / jump vergence/ maddox rod and wing

                                 Near point of covergence                                                   

                                 Motility test. / Hess screen (or alternative –prism cover test)

                                                                                                Pre- requisite:   OPT 301

PIO 334: NEUROPHYSIOLOGY                                                                        (2UNITS)

A.        Electrophysiology of the nerve cell

            Basis of resting potential (ionic balance, transport mechanisms)

            Basis of action potential (ionic balances)

            Action potential conduction

            Synapses, classification, transmission.

            Membrane physiology receptors, membrane channels

            Inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials (including concepts of spatial and temporal summation.

 B.       Integration of nerve signals (synaptic processes, reflexes, feed backs, adaptation and habitation).

            Sensory coding system (receptor potential uni –and multi – model units, receptive fields) 

            Somatosensory system (transmission of tactile, proprioceptive, temperature and pain sensations)

            Auditory system (function of middle ear and cochlea, central auditory mechanisms)

            Vestibular system (function of vestibular apparatus, brainstem mechanisms of Vestibulo – ocular and postural reflexes).

            Motor pathway (spinal reflex, muscle spindles, control of movement by the motor cortex, the cerebellum, the basal gangia and brainstem structures).

            Autonomic nervous system (including function of adrenal medulla and central regulation of visceral function).

            Significance of evoked potentials CT and PET scanning and MRI coulometer control.

            Lateral genecular physiology, striate and prostrate cortex

            Visual input to parietals and temporal lobes

            The limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Effects of cortical and tactual lesions and eye movement

             Clinical  implications of visual evoked potential (VER) and electrotinogram ( ERG) 

 OPT 332:   OCULAR PHYSIOLOGY                                                                       (2UNITS)

This course includes a detailed description of the gross structure of the visual apparatus: the orbit, its contents and related structures. Specific description of the physiology of all parts: lids, cornea, choroids, iris, lens and retina. Production and drainage of extra and intra ocular fluids. Intraocular pressure mechanism. 

OPT 334: BACTERIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY                                             (2UNITS)                                                                      

A.        Parasitological Disease states, life cycles, transmission, pathogenic mechanism, symptoms, etc

            Diagnosis and immunity of infections by protozoan, trematodes, nematodes and anthropods

B.        Mycology

            Biology of fungi

            Disease state, transmission, pathogenic mechanisms, symptoms, diagnosis and immunity of infections.

C.        General immunology

            Antigens (chemistry and origin)

            Antigen – antibody interaction

            Complement chemistry, function and pathways

            Cytokines (origin and function)

            Non – specific immunity

            Specific immunity 

            Hypersensitivity  

            Transplantation immunology

            Immunological tolerance

            Autoimmunity.

OPT 312:  OPHTHALMIC OPTICS    II                                                                      (2UNITS)

A continuation of OPT 302 with special emphasis on unique optical materials and their functions. It covers calculations and formulae to compute, mark  and determine  true power, lens thickness and the relationship of optical center to edge thickness. Base curve, flat and toric transpositions, lensometry.                       

Pre-requisite: OPT 311

 OPT 316: DISPENSING OPTICS LAB                                                                       (1UNIT)
Laboratory cutting, work involves edging, glazing and fitting of lenses into frames.Turting of lenses, usage of the different types of lensmeter, edgers etc. 

Pre-requisites: OPT 319

OPT 304:      BIOSTATISTICS                                                                                     (2UNITS)
Applications of descriptive, inferential, parametric and non-parametric statistics to health, theory of probability sampling techniques, hypothesis testing, dealing with error, construction and interpretation of graphs and tables.
Applications of biostatistics to health and medicine, drug counting; health survey.

OPT 306:  DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY                                                    (2UNITS)
Psychology in human growth and development. Distinction between development, growth and maturation. Influences of nature and nurture on development and in individual differences. Principles of development. Theories of development. Detailed treatment of stages, concepts,  types and characteristics of human development. Disturbances in development.                                

 Pre- requisite: OPT 210


400 LEVEL
FIRST SEMESTER

OPT 437:      GENERAL PATHOLOGY                                                                      (3UNITS)
Definition of pathology, disease and relevant terms used in pathology. The causes and classification of disease. Cell damage and its sequale. Inflammation, its functions and types. Cardinal signs and mechanisms of inflammation. Infection and the body's defence against it. Body's response to infection including immunity to infection. Cross infection and its control. Some important bacterial, fungal and viral infections including tuberculosis, candidiasis and HIV / AIDS.
Disorders of growth including hyperplasia, hypertrophy, dysplasia and dystrophy. Tumors, their etiologies, types, classification and characteristics. Cysts, their formation and classification. Developmental anomalies or disturbances. Effects of ionizing radiations on human tissues. Trauma- wounds, fractures, dislocations and bleeding. Systems pathology: Disorder of blood-disorders of red blood cells, WBC's and thrombocytes.Disorders of circulation. Disorders of the heart, diseases of the respiratory system, gastro-intestinal track and disorders of bones and joints.

OPT 403: DIAGNOSTIC OPTOMETRY1                                                                   (2 UNITS)
 Interpupillary distance (for both far and near).
Refraction at;

(a) Distance
           (i)        Objective: static retinoscopy, and/ or cycloplegic, and /or autorefraction.

           (ii)        Subjective: ophthalmic lens, and /or contact lens.

           (iii)       Binocular balancing.

(b) Near
           (i) Dynamic retinoscopy or

           (ii) Monocular and binocular Cross cylinder test

(c) Keratometry mandatory in contact lens work and optional as an aid to diagnosis, in some ocular pathologies.

OPT 413:      PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS III                                                              (3UNITS)
The photochemistry of vision. Sensory aspects of vision; color vision and adaptation. The mechanism of color vision defects, their detection and significance. Electrophysiology of the retina and visual pathway. Pullfrich phenomenon, post point, prism adaptation, Horopter, the cyclopean eye, Fixation disparity, Desk adaptation labs.  Optical illusions, Holography, Entopic phenomenon.
                                                                               Pre-requisites: OPT 311, OPT 314

OPT 421:      CONTACT LENS I                                                                                      (3UNITS)
Introduction to contact lens, outlining the history and development of new materials, advantages and disadvantage of these materials including indications and contraindications to contact lens wear. Contact lens optics, designs, ordering, verification and modification, care of products and complications.

OPT 435:     OCULAR PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY                         (2UNITS)
Principles of ocular pharmacology. Choice and administration of diagnostic and prophylactic ophthalmic drugs.  Anti-infective preparations. Precautions and adverse effects from use of ophthalmic drugs. Introduction to toxicology.                            
-Availability: sources of drugs, drug trends, Types of drugs, etc.
- Bio- availability: Drug Gen. Principles, routes, concentration, forms, Contact lens solutions, distribution, etc

OPT 407: OPTOMETRIC INSTRUMENTATION                                                     (2UNITS)
                        (a)       Description of the principles behind the operation of optometry ophthalmic  instrumentation.

                        (b)       Principle of operation, basic maintenance and repair of common optometric instruments.

                        (c)       Advances in optometry instrumentation.

OPT 461:      GENERAL EPIDEMIOLOGY                                                                  (2UNITS)
Tenets of epidemiology. Descriptive epidemiology, Agent-Host- Environment model, person- Time-Place model, Analytical epidemiology, measurement of risks. Health status index, Health status indicators, incidence rate, prevalence rate, specific rates, screening, assessment of risk factors.

OPT 4O1:      CLINICAL PROCEDURE I                                                                      (3UNITS)                               

Techniques learnt in OPT 301, OPT 302, OPT 401, OPT 403 are practiced and developed preparatory to examining patients, using available equipment in the junior clinic. Coordinator demonstrates the clinical procedure used in patient examination  which include the following   Preliminary external tests continued. Clinical procedure and significance of the findings from penlight inspection, transillumination, papillary test, versions and vergence tests, far and near points of accommodation (PR&PP), RAF rule, placid disc. Munson sign, ocular palpation, confrontation visual field methods, Amsler grid, and colour vision tests: Ishihara / pseudoisochromatic plates, lantern test, farms worth D15 and 100 Hue tests; ophthalmoscope; Direct and monocular indirect. Class demonstration and exercise included.

SECOND SEMESTER

OPT 4O2:      CLINICAL PROCEDURE II                                                                    (3 UNITS)                
Routine Optometric Examination: Review of Preliminary External Tests: Theory, Clinical Procedure and Result Interpretation In Indentation Tonomery, Perimetry, Slitlamp Biomicroscopy, Applanation Tonomertry (Including Goldman, NCT and Tonomat) Goniscopy, Fundocopy, (Including Direct and Indirect Ophthalmoscopy).

OPT408:  APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY FOR OPTOMETRISTS                                (2UNITS)               

Introduction to psychology, and the application of the following concepts to optometry: motives and behaviour, motivation and perception, motivation and emotion, conditioning and learning, childhood development, personality, social perception, stress and stress disorders.      

OPT 422:      CONTACT LENS II                                                                                      (2UNITS)
Advanced contact lens practice and application to special cases like Astigmatism, keratoconus, presbyopia, aphakia, low vision and special uses of contact lenses. New technologies in contact lens production. Contact lens solutions. Principles behind design and production of contact lenses.  
                                                                                                            Pre-requisite: OPT 421

OPT 404:     DIAGNOSTIC OPTOMETRY II                                                                 (2UNITS)

  • Fusional reserves (phorometry ● Fixation disparity ● Amplitude of accommodation and reading addition if patient is presbyopic ● AC/A ratio. 

  • Gross visual field screening

    • Confrontation fields
    • Central visual field screening (automated perimeter) for symptomless and risk- free patients.
  • Central visual field quantification (Where  there are indications of field defect suggested by symptoms, signs, risk factors, quantification of threshold visual fields must be performed).           
    • Tangent screen test,
    •  Humphrey field analyser (threshold automated perimeter is gold test).
  • Central vision assessment in the event of little or no reduction in visual acuity (central visual function assessment).      
    • Amslers chart. For centroceaecal scotomas and metamorphopsia.                                      
    • Contrast sensitivity and Disability glare           
    • Stereo acuity

The integration of individual findings. Visual analysis, graphical analysis, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.  Sphygnomanometry. General health and the influence of the various health conditions on the eyes.

                                                                                Pre-requisites: OPT 301, 302, 403

 OPT 432:     OCULAR PATHOLOGY I                                                      (2UNITS)

General overview of the disease process with emphasis on the anterior segment, including congenital and acquired deformities: basic causes, symptoms and signs of pathology, prognosis, management and prevention are covered. Diffuse disease and sequelae of the eye, diseases and abnormalities of the external eye (adnexa), conjunctiva, cornea, sclera, uveal tract, lens, vitreous, orbit, trauma and ocular emergencies.

OPT 438: ANOMALIES OF BINOCULAR VISION                               (2UNITS) 

A.        (i)        Ocular Motility

                        Extra ocular Musculature

                        Purpose and roles for vision

                        Dynamics and kinematics of eye movement

                        Specification of direction of gaze and ocular orientation (torsion)        

                        Agonist antagonist's relationship

                        Primary action and secondary and tertiary actions

                        Fields action.

            (ii)       Characteristics and control of the various eye movements

                        Versional eye movements (pursuits and saccades)

Vergence eye movements (tonic, accommodative including models of accommodative / vergence interaction, fusional and proximal)

                        Nystagmus including optokinetic and vestibular.

B.                    Human Development.

C.                    Normal visual development in the infant and child

                        Accommodation and convergency

                        Stereopsis

                        Effect of early environmental restrictions.

                        Strabismus

                        Derivational amblyopia

            (i)        Normal changes in vision with ageing 

                        Accommodation and convergence

                        Coulometer system

            (ii)       Sensory Anomalies of Binocular vision / Strabismus

            (iii)      Epidemiology, history and symptoms inventory

            (iv)      Observation and recognition of clinical signs and techniques and skills to for the testing of:

                        Monocular fixation,

                        Amblyopia

                        Sensory fusion and stereopsis, Fixation disparity.

OPT 414:      CLINICAL OPTICS                                                                  (2UNITS)

Dispensing procedure physiological, physical and psychological accomplishments of an ophthalmic prescription. Lens styling, absorptive and occupational glasses; significance and factors to be considered in fitting absorptive lenses. Metallic exides used for tinting of absorptive lenses. The spectrum classification of glasses, special cases: lenticular lenses, coated lenses, transition lenses. Occupational analysis: factors to be considered with regards to the occupation bifocal prescription analysis. Prismatic effects in reading area of Bifocals, compensation. Trifocals and criteria for screening patients for bifocals, procedure for determing the segment height of multifocal lenses.                                                                                  Pre-requisites: OPT 311, 312, 319


500 LEVEL 

FIRST SEMESTER

OPT 501:      CLINICAL PROCEDURE III                                          (3UNITS)                          

 Continuation of OPT401 and 402. Techniques learnt in OPT 301, OPT 302, OPT 403 are practiced and developed preparatory to examining patients.

                                                                                     Pre-requisites: OPT 301,302,403

OPT 561: ENVIRONMENTAL VISION                                             (2UNITS)

Introduction: mankind division and his environment. Radiation and illumination protection against radiation and other hazards; Evaluation design of lighting; vision through the atmosphere; Problems of vision under water; Human factors in the solution to vision problems. Occupational vision. Vision in sports. Vision in space and its relevance to research in vision 

OPT 551:      ORTHOPTICS                                                                    (2UNITS)

Definition, types of muscle imbalance, heterophorias. Application and use of various visual training and orthopic devices and instruments. Different exercises, prisms, Remy separator, Maddox wing. Measurement of deviations.

                                                                                                Pre-requisite: OPT 438

OPT 503: PEDIATRIC OPTOMETRY                                                (2 UNITS)

A review of the development of vision and the distribution of refractive errors among infants. Common congenital disorders, clinical assessment procedures for the young patient (from birth through elementary school), identification of learning disorders and recommendation of appropriate remedial programme. Clinical work is included.

OPT 521:       CONTACT LENS CLINIC                                               (2 UNITS)

Techniques learnt in OPT 421 are practiced and developed preparatory to examining patients. Prefit examination, observation of patients, use of slit lamps for examination and learning techniques, use of keratometers to take keratometric readings for lens types such as rigid, soft lens.  Lens inspection and verification, lens modification, fitting of rigid and soft lenses, lens ordering dispensing.

                                                                                        Pre-requisites: OPT 421, 422

OPT 591:  SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHODS                           (2 UNITS)

Rudiments of research methodology and its application to the public health field. Course covers basic learning of the following aspects: research problem definition, research questions, research and null hypothesis.  Theoretical-conceptual formulation of research problems, review of related literature, basic research designs, methods of research observations, measurement of variable, data analytic techniques, interpretation of research findings. Includes study of randomization techniques, epidemiologic research designs and controlled clinical trials.

OPT 507: VISUAL ANALYSIS I                                                            (2 UNITS)

Description: visual analysis involves a through case study based on the various eye examination procedures that the clinician learned in the previous levels of the programme. Hypotheses are formulated as a result of the test findings that the clinician has performed on the patient. The didactic study in this course is applied in the clinic.

Lecture plan: (3 hours of lecture / week)

Week1 significance of patient are in the various aspects of taking the history and preliminary examination.

Week 2/4 Significance of visual tests.

,,          5/6 Graphical analysis

,,          7/8 Morgan's analysis

,,          9 Mencias analysis

,,          10 Discomforts emanating from visual disorders.

,,          11 Guideline in modifying subjective findings

,,          12 Problems Non-refractive in nature

,,          13 Marlow's occlusion.

,,          14 Review 

OPT 531:  OCULAR PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS       (3 UNITS)

Antimicrobial drugs. Anti-inflammatory drugs, local anesthetics. Diagnostic  drugs. Drug treatment of common ocular conditions-glaucoma, inflammatory conditions etc. Clinical usage of drugs: Drugs used in Ophthalmic Practice-Therapeutics, Diagnostics, Anesthetics, Mydriatics, Miotics etc. Sterilization of instruments.

Contact lens solutions. Abbreviations used for medications.

                                                                                         Pre-requisites: OPT 437,432

OPT535:       OCULAR PATHOLOGY II                                                (2 UNITS)

Introduction To Pathophysiology, detection and management of posterior segment diseases / disorders of the retina, optic nerve, neural pathway including ocular manifestation of systemic and localized disease; ocular emergencies. Student should be able to recognize and differentiate these diseases ophthalmoscopically and represent them in colored illustrations.

                                                                           Pre-requisites: OPT 437, OPT 432

SECOND SEMESTER

OPT 502: CLINICAL PROCEDURE IV                                              (2 UNITS)

Optometry extension programm (OEP).  21 steps in clinical examination of patients. Students are expected to learn the 21 steps and be able to perform all of them.

OPT 534:  ENDOCRINOLOGY AND NUTRITION                        (2 UNITS)

This course will cover basic human endocrine systems and general functions, mode of action, regulation and transport. Vitamins and their metabolism effect of vitamins in the eye. Metabolic disturbances related to dietary deficiencies such as xerophthalmia, vitamin a deficiency, galactose cataract, diabetic mellitus, optic neuritis etc. metabolic diseases and their ocular manifestations a general overview. 

OPT 504:  MEDICAL LAWS & ETHICS                                            (2UNITS)

Code of ethics and rules of professional conduct. Inter-professional relationships, professional associations and legal aspects of practicing Optometry in Nigeria.

 OPT 506: GERIATRIC OPTOMETRY                                               (2UNITS)

Defining the geriatric patient. Psychological, physiology, social and ocular problems of the elderly. Techniques for refraction, binocularity and ocular health assessment for the elderly with emphasis on involution and pathological changes. Special oculo-visual problems of concern to the elderly patient.

Presbyopia, cataract, aphakia, visual field losses, low contrast sensitivity and color vision. Handling and counseling the elderly patient. Problems of therapy, management and compliance. Special problems of the hospitalized and bedridden elderly patients. Clinical work is included.

OPT 536:      OCULAR PATHOLOGY III                                           (2UNITS)

Papillary and accommodative anomalies in neurological diseases. Headaches, Migraines and other photopic episodes. Optic nerve disorders, supranuclear nuclear and in franuclear coulometer presentations, nystagmus. Associated visual field disorders and the study of different instruments for field charting.

                                                                                       Pre-requisites: OPT 431, 437, 535

OPT542: LOW VISION & OCULAR PROSTHESIS                       (2UNITS)

This course is designed to familiarize the student with a wide range of physiological disorders and diseases that lead to significant low vision, and the optical and non-optical devices used to provide correction. Emphasis on the use of telescopic magnifiers, illuminating devices and a list of resources for the partially sighted patient. Ocular prosthesis- evaluation and fitting.

OPT 500: PRACTICE MANAGEMENT                                             (2UNITS)

The various modes of practices; single, partnership, group practice, employed practice in hospitals, government and industry. The development and management of optometric practice. Office location, layout, and the development of inert and professional relationships. Financing the optometric practice; initial purchase of equipment and stock; accounting procedures; investments. Limited liability companies. Introduction to legal systems – employment agreements, purchase agreements, legalizing of practice.

OPT 536: ADVANCED HEALTH SCIENCE                                     (2UNITS)

This course focuses on prevalent diseases that are of interest to the optometrist; Systemic diseases with ocular manifestations, ocular and general emergencies. Emerging diseases of interest to optometry.

OPT 508-VISUAL ANALYSIS II                                                          (3UNITS)

Description:

Continuation of visual analysis with emphasis on cases that need prismatic correction, age related visual problems, neurosis, and other problems that a patient would likely suffer from and how a clinician should handle such cases.

Lecture plan:

Week ½ Vertical Imbalances

,,          ¾ Lateral Imbalance

,,          5/6 Problems of Aged

,,          7/8 Problems of Very Young.

,,          9/11 Neurosis and Patient's Complaints of Prescription

,,          12 Problems Emanating From Patient's Dissatisfaction

,,          13/14            Visual Efficiency

 

600 LEVEL 

FIRST AND SECOND SEMESTER 

OPT 605: EXTERNSHIP (1ST & 2ND SEMESTERS)                        (3UNITS)                                                                             

Optometric patient care provided in interdisciplinary and non-interdisciplinary health care setting (external to the University) by students under strict supervision. This course starts from 500 LEVEL long vacation and ends before Easter.

OPT 603: HOSPITAL PRACTICE (2ND SEMESTER)                    (3UNITS)

This involves attending to patients within health care setting external to the University: Hospitals, Health Centers and Ambulatory care services. Inter-disciplinary practice. Course involves; hospital administration, inter relationship between the optometrist. And other consultants in a hospital selling. Different categories of referral, functions of an optometrist in a hospital setting. Optometric/ health ethics.      

OPT 607: COMMUNITY EYE HEALTH  (1ST & 2ND SEMESTER) (3UNITS)

Students participate in Outreach programmes involving off campus sites under supervision of Optometrists. Students embark on vision screening, field trips to rural communities to deliver eye care services and survey of endemic eye and vision problems. Students will prepare a report, which will be submitted to the department on cases and experience acquired from the programme.

OPT 671:  SEMINAR ON RESEARCH TOPICS (1ST & 2ND SEMESTER)   (3UNITS)

Recent developments in Optometry are presented. Review of current literature, critical views on the latest diagnostic and therapeutic techniques are discussed in different field of recent on the eye care delivery system.

OPT633: ADVANCES IN OPTOMETRY (2NDSEMESTER)                (2UNITS)                

Recent developments in optometry. Especially in research, instrumentation and the entire profession of optometry. Also, regarding new legal pronouncement in of optometry. The future of the profession of optometry-Eye physicians and surgeons.

OPT 602:  PRIMARY EYE CARE (1ST & 2ND SEMESTER)                (8UNITS)                  

Examination, diagnosis and treatment of patients in the optometry clinic under the supervision of an optometrist. Emphasis is placed on the routine optometric examination and the detection of pathology. Practice with emphasis on total scope of optometric patient care; including general care of children, adults and geriatric population; diagnosis of ocular disease; contact lenses; visual training and dispensing.

OPT 691:     RESEARCH PROJECT (1ST&2NDSEMESTER)                (6UNITS)                                   

Areas of research emphasis to be discussed with the faculty. Each student is to undertake an investigation / research in the selected and approved area for the purpose of discovering, exposing new facts of throwing more light on existing facts. Oral defense before a defense panel to be appointed by the school and whose membership should include an external examiner.

OPT 608 VISUAL PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY     (3UNITS)  

Description:

This course starts with a review of the nervous system, cortical visual centers. Light, seeing visual efficiency and perceptual acuity, visual projection and space perception. It deals  with such attributed as mind, effect, brain pattern, instinct emotion, the unconscious mind, identification, reality, attention, including mental, ideal, and object attention. Voluntary and involuntary attention. Projection mental perception, percepts, correction of perception, concepts, space perception, mental space system and origin, memory association conditioned reaction and stimulus, reason, mental judgment, judgment of distances and factor involved, depth perception, common causes of misjudgment, perception of motion and illusions. Clinical demonstrations, psychopathology.

Lecture plan: (3hours of lecture /week)

Week ½ the course starts with a review of the nervous system, cortical and sub- cortical visual centres.

Week 3/5 Light, seeing, visual efficiency and perceptual acuity, visual projection and space projection.

Week 6/8 it deals with such attributes as mind, effect, brain, pattern, instinct, emotion, the unconscious identification, reality, attention, including mental, ideal and object attention.

Week 9/10 projection, mental, perception, percepts, correction of perception,

Concepts.

Week 12 space perception, mental space system and origin.

Week  12 memory, association conditioned reaction and stimulus, reason, mental judgment.

Week 13 judgment of distance and factors involved, depth perception, common causes of misjudgment.

Week14 perceptions of motion and illusions, clinical demonstrations.